Duluthians & the Civil War

Men of St. Louis County have participated in all the wars in which this nation has engaged, i.e., in those of their time. The War of the Revolution, the War of 1812, and the Mexican War were all before the time of” the pioneers of St. Louis County; and while many of the pioneer families of the county were of colonial descent, and in consequence probably contributed to the strength of Washington’s forces, it hardly seems possible that any soldier of the Revolution lived within the borders of St. Louis County. Some soldiers of the War of 1812 may have, but they are not of record. It is possible that some of the early settlers were veterans of the Mexican campaign, but of them even there is no authentic record. St. Louis County, as a white settlement, was still in its infancy, and very sparsely populated in the early ’60s; nevertheless, to the limit of its strength, it gave of its best to the Federal cause, and shares with Minnesota a glorious Civil war record, men of St. Louis County rallying to the first regiment offered to Lincoln-the first in the whole country. That distinction, that unique honor, will be referred to later in this chapter.

When the call to arms came in 1861, only the fringe of St. Louis County had been settled, and the inhabitants of the few little hamlets of the North Shore were denied the patiotic urge that in later wars swept most of the full-blooded and right-minded young men into the military forces. There was no chance of organizing a Duluth battalion in 1861; nor even a company. The patriots of that outpost of civilization who felt the military “urge,” who felt a patriotic desire to strike with the federal forces at the section which refused governance by the principles of liberty to all, had to warm their patriotism by stern and long-sustained resolution. They had to depart singly, at their own expense, and in some cases go long distances before they could reach the place where they could enlist. And then, to an extent, they were among strangers. The young men of later wars had a different experience; they rallied in their home town to the colors; they had their schoolmates as comrades; and they left their home town cheered by the handgrips of friends, and the expressions of love and admiration from their own relatives. It was different in 1861. For instance, consider the case of Robert Emmit Jefferson.

He had married in 1859, and, says Carey: After the breaking out of the Civil war, Mr. Jefferson and his wife and baby girl left Duluth for his old home in St. Anthony Falls, going back by way of the grand portage of the Fond du Lac, up the St. Louis and Savannah rivers, down Prairie and Tamarac rivers into Sandy Lake, and down the Mississippi to St. Anthony. Before starting on their trip Mr. and Mrs. Jefferson stopped with the writer at Oneota, while preparing for the journey. It was considered by all that their journey would be extremely tedious and a dangerous one for Mrs. Jefferson and the baby; yet there did not seem to be any other way for them to get out of the country. In that year, while there were not many people at the Head of the Lakes, those that remained had very little left after the year of the panic (1857). There was no money in the country, nor any employment that could afford a living. It was one of those “fish and potato” years, when the people had to resort, in part at least, to the Indian style of living.

Mr. Jefferson was without money and therefore could not go around by lake, nor could he pay $35 fare for stage by way of the military road to St. Paul.

He was not so well prepared for the trip as Duluth was 200 years before, yet he concluded to face the perils. …After a perilous … trip he reached his old home.

Jefferson enlisted, and within a year had given up his life, his wife dying soon afterwards. However, the little girl, who by the way was the first white child born within the original village of Duluth, lived to reach maturity and a happy marital state. Yet, their parents entered upon their patriotic purpose in ’61 with a firm resolution and devotion to country. Many others left Duluth and the Head of the Lakes in much the same unostentatious way during the dark years of the early ’60s. No draft was demanded of Duluth until the war was far spent, and then it was disclosed that Duluth had practically fulfilled her moral liability by the call of the heart. Her sons had already gone into the thick of the struggle, fearlessly and by their own election; they had volunteered, many of them in the first year.

Doras Martin’s case is another instance of grim determination to fight for his country, no matter what obstacles came to prevent it.

He was well over sixty years old, had no money, but he borrowed $25 to go to St. Paul to enlist. There he was rejected, his gray hair and whiskers belieing his statement of age. But he dyed his hair, and crossed into Wisconsin, where he was admitted into the 30th Wisconsin Regiment as a man of forty years. He served until June 15, 1865, then being discharged at Louisville, Kentucky, for physical disability.

He returned to Duluth, proud of his military record, and proud of his uniform, as every war veteran has a right to be. So proud indeed of it that he had resolved to die in the national uniform.

And as he was then “nearing seventy years,” and had many premonitions of death, he was wont, it is said, to dress often in his regimentals. One morning, in 1867, he was found motionless, seated in his chair near the open door of his cottage, in full uniform, even to his hat. He was dead. But the sturdy old patriot, quadroon though he was supposed to be, was reverently given the last rites of a soldier of the nation. Dressed in “Blue,” the uniform of honor, he was given full military honors, and buried in Franklin Square, Minnesota Point. Later his body was removed to the Soldiers’ Rest, in Forest Hill Cemetery, his grave being No. 7, of Tier No. 1.

Judge Carey writes as follows regarding the part taken by St. Louis County in the Civil war: In 1861, when the southern states rebelled, and the Civil war in all of its sad and sorrowful features had become an accomplished fact, the Head of the Lakes had not recovered from the (money) panic and depression of 1857.

During the summer of 1861, many of those that yet remained departed, some with the patriotic spirit to enlist in the Union army, some went to St. Paul, others to their homes in other states, and. others to their old homes in Canada (not being citizens). … ‘ In 1860 the total population of St. Louis County was given as 406. … In 1862, the total enrollment of able bodied men in St. Louis County subject to draft was only 46. … This shows a remarkable thinning out in two years. There was no call for a draft of recruits for the army until 1864; in that year there were three calls-on February 1, March 14 and July 2. There were required from St. Louis County under the three calls a total of 23, and a total credit of 21, as furnished up to October 31, 1864. … Sixteen were volunteers, and five received bounties of public money voted by the county commissioners. During the six months in which those draft calls .were made active steps were taken by interested citizens through the adjutant general of the state and all other available sources, to obtain credit for all the volunteers from St. Louis County that had been enlisted since the beginning of the war, whether they enlisted in Minnesota, or in any other state; and in 609this way the credit of sixteen volunteers was obtained up to the last call of President Lincbln, in July, 1864, for 500,000 more men; then St. Louis County lacked seven more men to fill her quota.

On September 12, 1864, an appropriation of $1,500 was made by the board of county commissioners for bounties for volunteers, and at the same session a levy of 8 mills on the dollar was made on the property of the county, to make good that amount.

A few individuals that were anxious to avoid draft raised some “greenbacks,” which they contributed to the county fund. This bounty had the effect of inducing five more men to enlist before October 31.

Judge Carey could not recall the names of many of the sixteen volunteers, but remembered that among them were: Col. J. B. Culver, Freeman Keene, John G. Rakowsky, Julius Gogarn, Robert P. Miller, William C. Bailey, and Alonzo Wilson, also of course Robert E.

Jefferson. The names of the other pioneer residents of St. Louis County who served will probably be found included in the roster painstakingly prepared for this compilation by the late Asa Dailey, of Duluth.

Considering the Civil war record of St. Louis County as it now is, i.e., including in the record those of the residents of St. Louis County who served in the Civil war and afterwards took up abode within the county, as well as those who enlisted from St. Louis County, the roster is a large one, and connects the county with many distinguished regiments. As will be seen by referring to the list, men who then or later were of St. Louis County, were found upon the rosters of many regiments of many states. It would not be possible to here review the records of all the regiments in which men of the county served, but brief reference might be appropriately made to the distinguished records of Minnesota regiments. In every one of the famous Minnesota regiments from the First to the Eleventh were men who are registered as of St. Louis County. The lists before the writer of this review give the names of 581 soldiers of Civil war service claimed to be of St. Louis County; and among them are fifty-eight who served in Minnesota military units.

Regimental Records.-The State of Minnesota was not four years old when, on April 13, 1861, Fort Sumter, Charleston, South Carolina, surrendered to the forces of secession. Washington officials and President Lincoln knew of it that night, but the country in general knew nothing of it, and not many of the people of Washington sensed its real significance. There was one man in the Federal capital, however, who immediately grasped the dire portent of the message from Sumter; he was a sturdy pioneer of the Territory of Minnesota.

Alexander Ramsey, then governor of the state. He was in Washington on state business at that time, and with the characteristic quickness of action and thought had resolved that Minnesota should be one of the first states to prove its loyalty to the principles for which Lincoln and the Republic stood. Impatiently he waited for night to pass. With daylight he took action. It is said that “early on the morning of the 14th, Alexander Ramsey, governor of Minnesota, … presented in person to President Lincoln his written offer of 1,000 men for the suppression of the rebellion. It was then stated by the president, and the fact has never been controverted, that this tender was the first response to the President’s call for 75,000 men.” Thirty years later, ex-Governor Ramsey, in a public address, stated: In the month of April, 1860, upon official business as governor of Minnesota, I was called to the City of Washington. … On Saturday night, 610April 13, … Washington was deeply moved by the intelligence that Fort Sumter … had been attacked … and … had surrendered.

Early Sunday morning, accompanied by two citizens of Minnesota, I visited the War Department and found the secretary (Cameron) with his hat on and papers in his hand, about to leave his office. I said: “My business is simply, as governor of Minnesota, to tender a thousand men to defend the Government.” “Sit down immediately,” he replied, “and write the tender you have made, as I am now on my way to the President’s mansion.” This was quickly done, and thus Minnesota became the first to cheer the President by offers of assistance in the crisis which had arrived.

Surely a proud distinction for a region then in its first decade of statehood. The offer was accepted, and enlistments began next day, April 15th, at St. Paul and other places.

Probably Governor Ramsey had reckoned that one thousand men would more than meet the quota expected of the young state, which when created in 1857 had a population of only 150,000, many thousands of whom were of the red race. Yet, before the four years of war were over Minnesota had “furnished 25,052 Union soldiers,” or “72 per cent of her presidential vote in 1860, and 14 per cent of her entire population in that year.” Ten per cent, or twenty-five hundred men gave their lives to the nation, “and probably as many more died after their discharge as the direct result of wounds received or disease contracted” during military service.

Major Battles.-The mortality among men of Minnesota was deplorable, yet the fame of Minnesota regiments of the Civil war is immortal. “Official reports show that Minnesota regiments were engaged in all the sixteen leading battles of the war. … *Gettysburg, Spottsylvania, Wilderness, Antietam, Chancellorsville, Cold Harbor, Fredericksburg, Manassas, Shiloh, Stone River, Chickamauga, Petersburg, Vicksburg, Chattanooga, Nashville, and Atlanta. … The First Minnesota at Gettysburg, the Second Minnesota at Chickamauga, the Third Minnesota at Fitzhugh’s Wood, the.Fourth Minnesota at Vicksburg, the Fifth Minnesota at Corinth and Nashville left much conclusive evidence of their prowess that no story of either battle is complete which does not make acknowledgment of their effective participation.” And through the greater part of the national strife, when Minnesota was stripped almost bare of its man-power to keep the Union flag in the van, the few that remained in the home sector had to be almost constantly on guard lest the restless and cruel Indian at their very frontier, in fact within their borders, might get beyond control and manifest their traditional hatred of white people by bloody massacres in outlying settlements. Once they did get beyond control, as has been elsewhere narrated. It was a trying time, yet those who lived through the Civil war period look back in reminiscence to that period as “glad grand days,” as they really were, for in that period, as during the periods of other serious wars, the Revolution, the Spanish and World wars, men and women, young and old, were enthused by a spirit of unselfishness, of loyalty to and consideration for others, of patriotism to the nation; they were filled with that exaltation of service in a righteous cause which makes sacrifice glorious, and hardship a privilege. The soldiers that went to war left the capital of Minnesota thrilled by the enthusiasm and courage displayed by everyone.

The First Regiment left St. Paul (Fort Snelling) on June 22, 1861, at 5 o’clock in the morning; yet the “town was out,” a vast crowd to “see them off” at the lower levee, and at 8:30 A. M., the line of boats cast off, “the band playing a lively air, the crowd on the 611shore and the soldiers cheering lustily,” all proud to enter upon personal sacrifices for the nation, and thinking it “a glorious day” even though tears came to the eyes of some at the same time.

Now to review briefly the records of the regiments in which men of St. Louis County served. The review begins with: First Minnesota Infantry.-The First Regiment of Minnesota volunteers, which became an infantry unit, was organized in April, 1861, and originally commanded by Col. Willis A. Gorman, former territorial governor of Minnesota. Ordered to Washington, District of Columbia, June 14, 1861; embarked, June 21. Participated in the following marches, battles, sieges and skirmishes: Bull Run and Edward’s Ferry, 1861; Yorktown, Fair Oaks, Peach Orchard, Savage Station, Glendale and Nelson’s Farm, Malvern Hill, Vienna, Antietam, Charleston, first Fredericksburg, 1862; second Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, and Bristow Station, 1863. Discharged at Fort Snelling, Minnesota, May 5, 1864. At Gettysburg, out of 252 men engaged, the First lost 205, “the greatest relative casualty list suffered by any command during the war.” The following named men of St. Louis County were upon the rosters of the First Regiment: E. A. Austin, W. H. Bassett, G. H. Durphin, J. J. Egan, E. H. Foster, W. H. Johnson, E. R. Jefferson, R. E. Jefferson, J. 0. Milne, Thos. H. Pressnell, Franklin Paine, and John Young.

Second Minnesota Infantry.-The organization of the Second Regiment of Minnesota volunteers was entered upon even before the First had left St. Paul. Officially, the Second Regiment was recorded as having been organized in July, 1861. It was originally commanded by H. P. Van Cleve, a West point graduate, a veteran of the Black Hawk war. He became a brigadier-general in 1862. The Second Regiment was ordered to Louisville, Kentucky, in October, 1861, and became part of the Army of the Ohio. Engaged in the following campaigns, battles, and sieges: Mill Spring, siege of Corinth, Braggs Raid, Perryville, 1862; skirmishes of the Tullahoma campaign, Chickamauga, and Mission Ridge, 1863. The regiment was veteranized in January, 1864, and joined Sherman’s forces for the Atlanta campaign, taking part in the following engagements: Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain, 1864; Jonesboro; Sherman’s march through Georgia and the Carolinas; Bentonville, 1865. Discharged at Fort Snelling, July 11, 1865. The regiment “covered itself with laurels” in the battle of Chickamauga, and “few Minnesota regiments, if any, performed more long and laborious marches.” St. Louis County men of the Second Regiment were: J. N. Barncard, A. C. Bentley, Thomas Bowen, J. W. Burbank, M. C. Russell, and R. W. Sanburn.

Third Minnesota Infantry.-The Third Regiment was organized in October, 1861, and originally commanded by Col. Henry C. Lester, of Winona. Ordered to Nashville, Tennessee, in March, 1862; thence to St. Louis, Missouri, and to Minnesota. Engaged in Indian expedition of 1862. Participated in battle of Little Rock, Arkansas, November, 1863. Veteranized in January, 1864. Engaged at Fitzhugh’s Woods, March 30, 1864; ordered to Pine Bluff, Arkansas, April, 1864; mustered out Devall’s Bluff, September 2, 1865; discharged Fort Snelling. Regiment was conspicuous at Fitzhugh’s Woods.

St. Louis County men in Third Regiment: Andrew Brink, H. J. Eaton, Hans Eustrom, E. L. Woodward, and E. S. Woodsworth. Fourth Minnesota Infantry.-Organized December, 1861, Col. John B. Sanborn. Ordered to Benton Barracks, Missouri, April 19, 1862. Participated in: Siege of Corinth, April 1, 1862; Iuka, September, 1862; Battle of Corinth, October, 1862; Siege of Vicksburg, Raymond, Jackson, Champion Hills, assault on Vicksburg and capture of Vicksburg, July 4, 1863; Mission Ridge, November, 1863. Veteranized January, 1864. Allatoona, October, 1864; Sherman’s march through Georgia and Carolinas; Bentonville, March 20, 1865; Raleigh, 1865. Mustered out at Louisville, Kentucky, July 19, 1865. Discharged at Fort Snelling.

St. Louis County men on rosters of Fourth Regiment: U. S. Ayers, Brady Johnson, W. B. Patton, Charles Stewart, Fred Stauff, E. A. Tyler, and W. H. Van Valkenberg.

Fifth Minnesota Infantry.-Organized May, 1862, Col. Rudolph Borgesrode of Shakopee. Col. Lucius F. Hubbard of Red Wing later in command. Ordered to Pittsburg Landing, May 9, 1862. Left three companies in Minnesota for garrison duty. Regiment in many battles in 1862′, including Siege of Corinth, April-May; Battle of Iuka, September, 1862; Corinth, October, 1862. Minnesota detachment engaged with Indians at Redwood, Minnesota, August 18, 1862; Siege of Fort Ridgely, August 20-22, 1862; Fort Abercrombie, D. T., August, 1862. Regiment with Sixteenth Army Corps saw heavy fighting iri 1863, including: Jackson, Siege of Vicksburg, Assault of Vicksburg, Mechanicsburg, Richmond, 1863. The regiment was at Fort DeRussey, Louisiana, in March, 1864; then followed the Red River fighting, March-May; Lake Chicot, June, and Tupelo. July, 1864. In that month the regiment was veteranized. In August it engaged in the Battle of Abbeyville. Ordered to Nashville, Tennessee, in November, 1864, it took part in battle of Nashville, December 15-16. In April, 1865, it was at Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely, and finally, on September 6, 1865, was mustered out in Demopolis, Alabama. M. Bruletti, James Farrell, N. Hettinger, WV. G. Huston, and J. McGraw were the St. Louis County men of the Fifth Regiment.

Sixth Minnesota Infantry.-Organized August, 1862. Ordered to participate in Indian expedition forthwith. In battle with Indians at Birch Coulee, September 2, and Wood Lake, September 22, 1862.

Garrison duty, frontier posts, next eight months, then actively in field against Indians. Three engagements. Similar garrison duty September, 1863 to June, 1864, then leaving for Helena, Arkansas.

Ordered to St. Louis, Missouri, November, 1864, thence to New Orleans, January, 1865. With Sixteenth Army Corps engaged at Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely, April, 1865. Col. A. D. Nelson, original commander, was ordered to frontier before the organization was completed but he soon resigned and Col. Wm. Crooks appointed.

James H. La Fans seems to have been the only St. Louis County man in that regiment.

Seventh Minnesota Infantry.-Organized in August, 1862, Col. Stephen Miller, of St. Cloud, commanding. Participated Indian expedition, 1862; battle Wood Lake, Minnesota, September 22. Garrison duty frontier until May, 1863. Actively in field against Indians that summer; engagements July 24, 26 and 28. Ordered St. Louis, Missouri, October 27, 1863; thence to Paducah, Kentucky, April, 1864; thence to Memphis, Tennessee, Assigned to Sixteenth Army Corps, June, participating in: Battle of Tupelo, July; Tallahatchie, August; pursuit of Price from Arkansas to Missouri; Battle of Nashville, Tennessee, December, 1864. Last engagements Spanish Fort and Fort 613Blakely, Alabama, April, 1865. Discharged at Fort Snelling, Minnesota, August 16, 1865.

Lt.-Col. Wm. R. Marshall, later governor of state, may be claimed as St. Louis County man, being one of pioneer townsite owners on the North Shore in the ’50s; but the men of the Seventh Regiment shown on St. Louis County rosters are Frank Burke, John Hagadon, — McNeil, and Thos. Stokes.

Eighth Minnesota Infantry.-Organized August, 1862, Col. Minor T. Thomas, of Stillwater, commanding. At frontier posts until May, 1864, when regiment took field against Indians. Distinguished itself at Tah-cha-o-ku-tu, July 28, 1864, Little Missouri River, that engagement being only one against Indians commemorated in oils, the famous picture now hanging in the Minnesota State Capitol.

Other engagements of Eighth Infantry include battles against Confederate troops, the record including Battle of the Cedars, Wilkinson’s Pike, Tenn., December, 1864, and near Murfreesboro same month. Regiment took part in battles of Kingston, March, 1865, and was mustered out at Charlotte, North Carolina, July 11, 1865.

H. C. Helm and J. F. Russell, of St. Louis County, were of the Eighth Regiment.

Ninth Minnesota Infantry.-Organized August, 1862, Col. Alex. Wilkins, of St. Paul, commanding. At frontier posts until September, 1863, then ordered to St. Louis, Mo.; Garrison duty, Missouri, until May, 1864, then going to Memphis. Later engagements: Guntown expedition, June, 1864; Oxford expedition, August, 1864; Tallahatchie, August, 1864; pursuit of Price, Arkansas to Missouri; battles of Nashville, Tennessee, December, 1864; Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely, April, 1865. Discharged at Fort Snelling, August 24, 1865.

G. K. Barncard was the only known man of St. Louis County who served with the Ninth Regiment.

Tenth Minnesota Infantry.-Organized August, 1862, Col. James H. Baker, of Mankato, commanding. Frontier duty until June, 1863.

In field against Indians during summer; engaged July 24, 26 and 28th.

At St. Louis, Missouri, October, 1863; Columbus, Kentucky, April, 1864; Memphis, Tennessee, June, 1864. With Sixteenth Army Corps at Battle of Tupelo, July; Oxford expedition in August; Price pursuit; battles in Nashville, December, and in April of next year, 1865, at Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely, Alabama. Discharged Fort Snelling, August 19, 1865.

There were at least four St. Louis County men in the Tenth Regiment.; they were: James J. Barns, Hugh A. Cox, Amos Frankenfield and Henry Wellgarde.

Eleventh Minnesota Infantry.-The Eleventh Regiment was not organized until August, 1864, under command of Col. James Gilfillan.

It left for field of bitterest warfare, Tennessee, but was not destined to take part in actual fighting, being detailed to guard railroad between Nashville and St. Louis. It was mustered out in June, 1865.

H. F. Johnson, of St. Louis County, was in that unit.

First Regiment Heavy Artillery.-It was not until April, 1865, that the first Minnesota regiment of heavy artillery was organized.

The first battery of light artillery had been organized in October, 1861, and the second and third batteries in December, 1861, and February, 1863, respectively, but there seemed to be no call for heavy artillery until 1865, when Col. Wm. Colville, of Red Wing, organized the First Regiment. It was ordered to Chattanooga, Tennessee, and there remained until September, 1865, when it was mustered out.

614On the rolls of the regiment were John Saxton, Conrad Schoffer, and Albert Woolson, of St. Louis County.

Second Company, Sharpshooters was mustered until the Federal service for three years, in March, 1862, under command of Capt.

Wm. F. Russell. It was part of a corps of picked men, known as “Berdan’s Sharpshooters,” recruited for special service. Its record is practically the record of the First Minnesota Infantry, for it was assigned to duty with that regiment in June, 1862, and remained attached until mustered out.

Wm. H. Smith, of St. Louis County, was of the Sharpshooters.

First Mounted’Rangers was organized in March, 1863, by Col.

Samuel McPhail, of Houston. It took part in the Indian expedition of that year, and was mustered out before the end of that year.

The St. Louis County men among the Mounted Rangers were Geo. R. Page, Nelson Hooper, Geo. N. LaVaque and John H. LaVaque.

Brackett’s Battalion Cavalry.-Major Alfred B. Brackett, of St. Paul, organized the battalion of cavalry known by his name in October and November, 1861. The three companies soon left for Benton Barracks, Missouri, and in December, 1861, the battalion was assigned to “.’Curtis’ Horse,” and in February, 1862, left for Fort Henry, Tennessee. In the following April the regiment became the “Fifth Iowa Cavalry,” and as such took part in siege of Corinth, April, 1862. Ordered to Fort Heiman, Tennessee, August, 1862; veteranized February, 1864; ordered to Department of Northwest in 1864, Indian warfare, engagements July and August. Mustered out by companies May and June, 1866.

Charles Cotter and Leonidas Merritt were of Brackett’s Cavalry, and another St. Louis County man, H. H. Hawkins, who is listed as of Second Minnesota Cavalry, may have belonged to the second company of Brackett’s battalion.

Hatch’s Battalion, Cavalry.-H atch’s Battalion, otherwise known as the Independent Battalion of Minnesota Cavalry, was organized in July, 1863, by Major E. A. C. Hatch. It was formed for service against the Indians, and although a Federal unit, it was permitted to operate independently of General Pope, then in command of the department, reporting direct to the War Department, Washington.

The battalion was order to Pembina, D. T., October, 1863, and to Fort Abercrombie, D. T., May 1864, and there remained until mustered out by companies April to June, 1866.

S. L. Bohanan seems to have been the only St. Louis County man in Hatch’s Battalion.

The Late Asa Dailey.-The foregoing review covers the records of Minnesota regiments in which St. Louis County men served, but as will be seen by the following list, men of the North Shore were in very many other regiments, many of them of very distinguished record. But obviously this review must confine itself to Minnesota regiments. However, so that a complete roster might be preserved in an authentic county history, the compiler of this work approached Mr. Asa Dailey, of Duluth, in November, 1920, knowing him to be the man best fitted for the preparation of such a roster. Mr. Dailey, a worthy loyal comrade, readily entered upon the work, having during the latter part of his life devoted himself exclusively to Grand Army affairs. It is thought that he was loyally engaged in such work of compilation when stricken in the spring of this year. He never recovered, death coming on June 19, 1921.

Among his papers were later found the pencilled lists containing 615the Civil war information that follows this chapter. Whether the list is complete, or not, the compiler of this county work is unable to state, but the information is given so that the worthy patriots who are of record in St. Louis County, e.g., who were of local residence either before or since the Civil war, and gave the nation personal service during that long and terrible struggle, might feel that the editors of this work desire to honor them, or their memory, in acknowledging their war service.

The lists prepared by the late Asa Dailey, and here given, include only men of St. Louis County, it is presumed. The branch of service is given where possible. The list begins: Anderson, Charles U. S. N.; Austin, E. A., 1st Minn.; A. O. Ayers, 86th Ohio; S. C. Aldrich, 65th Ohio; Charles Arnold, 142nd N. Y.; Samuel Anderson, 11th Pa.; Henry Alger, 1st Conn., Charles N. Ashford, 10th N. Y.; U. S. Ayres, 4th Minn, Martin Anderson, 33rd Wis.; John Abair, 153 N. Y.; R. W. Abbott, 9th Maine; J. J. Ash, 2nd N. J. Charles Archer, 14th N. Y.; Martin Anderson, 53rd Wis.; J. N. Albertson, 11th N. Y. S. F. Boyer, 104th Ohio; C. N. Bonnell, 5th Wis.; W. H. Black, 23rd Ill.; John Butler, 6th N. Y.; John 0. Benson, 4th Ill.; T. B. Bedell, 1st Cal.; William Ball, 45th Wis.; Thomas S. Brown, 5th N. H.; J. H. Baker, 31st Iowa; B. H. Brown, 5th N. H.; John Burns, 15th U. S.; Frank E. Birdsell, 7th Mich.; C. B. Bjmark, 7th Mich.; James J. Barns, 10th Minn.; Lucien J. Barnes, 1st Mo.; Myron C. Bunnell, 10th Mich.; Wm. G. Benson, 12th Mich. Inf.; A. E. Briggs, 110th Pa.; G. Bywater, 3rd Mo.; Fred D. Barnett, 84th Pa.; Geo. C. Blackwood, 177th Ohio; U. A. Burnham, 76th N. Y.; Milton Buell, 48th Wis.; E. L. Barber, 10th N. Y.; M. Bruletti, 5th Minn.; W. H. Bassett, 1st Minn.; John Bucha, 12th Wis.; Frank Burke, 7th Minn.; Daniel L. Bishop, 13th Me.; Chas. E. Budden, 1st Mich.; Hiram E. Barker, 2nd Wis.; Samuel Barge, 13th Wis.; Andrew Brink, 3rd Minn.; S. H. Brinn, 7th N. J.; John R. Balsh, 141st N. Y.; H. G. Blackmor, 56th Ill.; A. C. Blackman, 28th Ind.; Alfred Baker, 65th N. Y.; C. P. Bragg, N. S. N.; G. H. Barncard, 9th Minn.; Daniel Bigber, 1st Wis.; M. W. Bates, 21st Mich.; J. W. Butt, 46th Iowa; A. H. Burke, 75th Ind.; F. H. Barnard, 44th Mass.; R. S. Barker, 31st Me.; Henry Brown, 26th Mass.; W. F. Bailey, 12th Iowa; S. E. Burnham, 1st Me.; L. J. Butterfield, 6th Wis.; D. J. Budd, Wis.; Thomas Brooke, 76th Ohio; S. L. Bohanan; John T. Bright, 13th Pa.; Lewis Barrett, 28th Ohio; Ardin H. Bowen, 54th Ill.; J. M. Burbank, 5th Wis.; J. M. Barr, 9th Iowa; W. J. Baker, 3rd Wis.; Jas. S. Bush, U. S. N.; Thomas Burns, 29th Mich.; John Barton, 43rd Wis.; Henry Brown, 26th Mass.; Edwin Barnham, 1st U. S. Engrs.; M. R. Baldwin, 2nd Wis.; Thomas Bartlett; S. S. Barnett; G. H. Brown, 5th N. H.; A. C. Bentley; Thomas Bowen; J. N. Barncard, 2nd Minn.; Chas E. Bostwick, 128th N. Y.; J. Brierly, 3rd Mass.; T. O. Brown, 18th Ill.; J. W. Burbank, 2nd Minn.; F. H. Brassett, 12th Wis.; Wm. F. Butters, 1st Me.; W. T. Bailey. C. J. Crassett, 10th Wis.; P. 0. Carr, U. S. N.; Miles Colson, U. S. N.; Thomas Cantwell, 143rd N. Y.; D. G. Cash, 27th Mich.; J. H. Cole, 12th Mich.; Cunningham, 73rd Pa.; E. M. Crassett, 18th Wis.; J. H. Cramer, 13th N. Y.; Chamberlain, 4th Wis.; A. Caisse, 3rd Mich.; Hugh A. Cox, 10th Minn.; R. S. Cowden, 7th Ohio; R. Cavanaugh, U. S. N.; Henry Champlin, 30th Wis.; M. J. Crothers, 6th Mich.; H. H. Covert, 148th N. Y.; Orson Coon, 49th Wis.; Chas. W. Cate, 8th Mich.; Ira Coburn, 950th Pa.; M. M. Clark, 5th Iowa; Henry Cleveland, 5th N. Y.; Chas. Cotter, Minn.; Dd. Crowley, 30th Wis.; 616Chas. Caya, 45th Wis.; A. M. Cox, 2nd Ill.; E. G. Chapman, 8th Iowa; S. W. Clark, 4th Mass.; Chas. F. Clement, 10th Ind.; Elkin Corbett, 1st N. Y.; James G. Clark, 30th Ohio; Osgood Churchill, 12th Me.; J. B. Culver, 13th Mich.; H. W. Coppernall; C. D. Campbell, 27th Mich.; Anthony Cloud, 44th Ind.; R. B. Campbell, U. S. N.; W. L. Carey, 29th Ohio; J. C. Cook, 8th Mich.; L. G. Colman, 30th Mich.; R. J. Clemon, 8th N. Y.; Arthur B. Chapin, 1st Ohio; N. B. Church; Michael Casey, L. U. Case, 1st Mich.; W. C. Corey, 18th Wis.; C. Cargall, 2nd N. Y.; D. S. Cole, 3rd Mich.; E. B. Christie, 8th Ill.; A. W. Clark, 5th Mich.; Walter M. Clark, 27th Wis.; Louis B. Coffey, 2nd Wis.; Wm. Carnethan. Marion Daniel, 3rd Wis.; A. S. Daniel, 11th Conn.; J. S. Daniels, 2nd Wis.; Asa Dailey, 30th Wis.; W. F. Davey, 97th N. Y.; John Donovan, 145th N. Y.; E. S. Dbodd, 14th Ohio; Job P. Dodge, 11th Ill.; Richard Dodge, 27th Wis.; Wm. Doudanow, 27th Mich.; Nelson Drake, 5th N. Y.; Cornelius Donohue, 4th Mich.; Geo. W. Donaldson, 27th Mich.; John Dimond, 1st N. Y.; Don A. Dodge, 101st N. Y.; James L. Dow, 49th Wis.; H. A. Douglas, 2nd Wis.; T. F. Dean, 9th Ind.; Darius Dexter, 7th Ill.; Sylvanus Doris, 2nd N. Y.; G. H. Durphin, 1st Minn. Chas. Emrick, 21st N. Y.; H. Evans, 9th Mich.; Clark Esmond, 7th Mich.; Durgan Evans, 1st N. H.; R. P. Edson, 144th N. Y.; J. P. Easton, 14th Ill.; Wm. Elswick, 5th Vir.; N. T. Esty, 3rd R. I.; H. J. Eaton; Hans Eustrom, 3rd Minn.; J. J. Egan, 1st Minn.; H. E. Emmerson, 2nd Wis.; Cook Ely, 41st Wis. J. S. Forward, 28th Wis.; James Finley, 9th Pa.; J. W. Frazer, 15th N. Y.; J. C. Ferguson, 1st Del.; E. P. Follett, 8th N. Y.; Chas. Falkenstein, 35th Wis.; John E. Fassett, 3rd Me.; H. R. Fish, 35th Pa.; C. F. Foster, 9th Ind.; J. S. Featherley, 20th Wis.; E. H. Foster, 1st Minn.; J. B. Flack, 1st Ky.; John Finlayson, 18th N. Y.; E. S. Fletcher, 23rd Wis.; Amos Frankenfield, 10th Minn.; John Frazier, 142nd N. Y.; James Farrell, 5th Minn.; M. Fitzpatrick, 3rd N. Y.; F. W. Flint, 7th Mich.; Edward Florada, 16th Wis.; John Finnigan, 3rd Wis.; Chas. W. Farrington, 135th Ohio; Lewis Franklin, 45th Wis.; A. H. Fish, 3rd Mich.; James H. Flint, 15th Iowa; Ed. Flannagan, 20th Ill.; Fred Fisher, 6th N. Y.; H. W. Ford, 29th Wis.; M. Fitzgerald, 16th Ill.; James H. Felt, 32nd Iowa. R. A. Gray, 21st Me.; A. W. Gillett, 37th N. Y.; C. F. Griffin, 47th Wis.; Joseph Glockle, 9th N. Y.; Giles Gilbert, 7th N. Y.; J. B. Geggie, 105th Pa.; E. Gouser, 192nd Ohio; Peter C. Gilley, 1st N. Y.; E. L. Gregg, 2nd Iowa; T. F. Gray, 1st N. J.; John Gates, 9th Mich.; John Grace, 7th Mich.; W. H. Gorndell, 93rd Ill.; H. Green, 6th Mich.; Chandler Gross, 8th N. Y.; Gilpatrick, 6th Me.; N. A. Gearhart, 104th N. Y.; E. Gleason, 22nd Wis.; M. W. Goodrich, 187th Pa.; John A. Gray, 8th Pa.; John A. Goss, 6th U. S. Cav.; Wm. Gutt, 74th Ill.; Carl Grieve, 8th N. Y.; C. H. Graves, 40th N. Y.; R. G. Geusse, 12th Ris. Carp.; John D. Gunn, 27th N. Y.; James R. Glass, 125th Pa.; S. L. Gage, 8th Pa.; James E. Goodman, 12th Mich. C. W. Harvey, 74th Ill.; G. H. Holden, 179th N. Y.; G. Hamilton, 9th Ill.; S. W. Higgin, 69th Ohio; D. W. Hayden, 1st Me.; C. L. Hooker, 5th Wis.; Hy. Hingson, 130th Ind.; A. E. Haughton, 2nd Me,; N. Hettinger, 5th Minn.; F. C. Hazelton, 10th Wis.; D. B. Heacock, 14th Ohio; F. W. Hunt, 11th Wis.; A. J. Herring, 195th Ohio; John Hagadon, 7th Minn.; E. J. Heath, 3rd Mich.; F. W. Harris, 21st Mich.; E. C. House, 5th U. S.; B. F. Howland, 7th Wis.; W. H. Harrison, 3rd Wis.; G. Harding, 3rd Wis.; David Hood, 5th Mich.; H. C. Helm, 6178th Minn.; – Harrison, 2nd Wis.; W. H’. Helm, 48th Mo.; N. F. Howe, 22nd Wis.; E. D. Hadley, 14th N. H.; F. B. Hizar, 1st Del.; F. Halladayce, 133rd Ind.; C. E. Holt, 6th Ohio; H. H. Hawkins, 2nd Minn.; James Hooker, 150th Ill.; A. N. Hopkins, 2nd Mich.; J. D. Holmes, 5th Mich.; W. P. Haines, 3rd Mo.; Benj. Hogan, 3rd N. Y.; H. J. Henderson, 15th Wis.; John Harrington, 24th Mich.; W. C. Hill, 2nd Pa.; Wm. F. Hyde, 1st Wis.; R. J. Hogan, 50th Wis.; Chas. Hamstead, 29th Mich.; Albert Huber, 72nd Ill.; Wm. G Huston, 5th Minn; James B. Hughes, 49th N. Y.; Robert P.. House, 11th Wis.; Frank K. Hill, 3rd Miss.; Nelson Hooper, 1st Minn. Jerome B. Inman, 2nd. Mich. Cav.; John Irvin, 1st Ohio Lt. Art.; Daniel Ivery, 44th Wis. E. F. Johnson, N. Y.; W. H. Johnson, 1st Minn.; H. F. Johnson, 11th Minn.; Rufus Johnson, 1st Del.; Leslie Johnson, 1st Neb.; Brady Johnson, 4th Minn.; E. R. Jefferson, 1st Minn.; R. H. Jefferson, 1st Minn.; Porter M. Jones, 12th Wis.; A. Jacobs, 1st Mich. Engrs. H. A. Kiihli, 27th Mich.; Freeman Keene, 1st Mich.; R. C. Kennedy, 89th N. Y.; E. F. Kingler, 55th N. Y.; J. A. King, 4th Wis.; K. Leller, 2nd Ohio; John Krackenberger, 27th Wis.; Dlavid Kimball, 27th Mich.; H. C. Kendall, 135th Ind.; – Kennedy, 137th Ind.; Frank Kirky, 6th N. Y.; Joshua Klein, 199th Pa.; J. W. Kilgow, 9th Ind.; M. F. Kalenbach, 32nd Wis.; Fred Knowlton, 8th Me.; O. D. Kinney, 6th Pa.; S. M. Keiller, 8th Wis.; Jeremiah Kimball, 1st N.; R. F. Kegg, 152nd Ind.; Geo. W. Keys, 150th Ohio. C. A. Loundsbury, 21st Mich.; Jacob Laux, 27th Ohio; A. M.

Longstreet, 20th Pa.; L. M. Leiman, 13th Me.; E. E. Lloyd, 12th Vermont; Alex Longmieur, 1st Mich.; Levi le Duc, 39th Wis.; J. A. Lathrop, 57th N. Y.; William Little, 17th Wis.; Geo. N. LaCaque, 1st Minn.; John H. LaVaque, 1st Minn.; Chas. Laurel, 14th Conn.; R. S. Lench, 2nd Pa.; Warren Lucom, 39th Wis.; O. H. Lucken, 15th Wis.; John Lake, 192nd N. Y.; Wm. H. Long, 11th Ind.; W. J. Long, 50th Ind.; James H. La Fins, 6th Minn.; Thos. Lanigan, 8th Pa.; C. LaBel; James LaGott, 16th Mich.; Joseph Laundrie, 5th Wis.; Leonard DeWitt, 27th Mich. F. M. Meyers, 2nd Mich.; James K. Magie, 78th Ill.; S. C. Maxwell, 76th Ind.; J. F. Moody, 2nd Mass.; T. J. Mitchell, 3rd Mo.; Chas. Miner, 19th Mass.; B. Minor, 22nd N. Y.; Doras Martin, 30th Wis.; John Monson; Joseph Moran, 12th Wis.: H. B. Moore, 1st Brig., 2nd Div.; C. F. J. Meyer, 16th N. Y.; A. H. Merriman, 22nd Wis.; W. H. Miller, 21st Pa.; J. S. Merrill, 1st Wis.; J. H. Miller, 74th Ind; E. P. Martin, 5th Ill.; A. McComber, 1st N. Y.; T. F. McGowan, 78th U. S. Cav.; J. McCrum, 5th U. S. Art.; P. McKane, 184th N. Y.; Chas. McNamara, 12th Mo.; S. C. McQuade, 27th Mich.; J. F. McLaren, 10th Pa.; W. A. McDonald, 41st Wis.; Leonidas Merritt; John Mallman, 27th Mich.; Frank E. Miller, Cogwell’s Bn.; Jewett McPherson, 1st U. S. Inf.; F. M. Meyers, 2nd Mich.; W. D. Mair, 30th Inf.; J. O. Milne, 1st Minn.; R. W. Mars, U. S. N.; J. E. L. Miller, U. S. N.; S. C. McCormick, 134th Pa.; E. W. McClure, 61st. Ill.; John B. Mussett, 87th Ill.; Austin Morden, 61st Mass.; Leonard Madden, 1st Iowa; Thomas McGill, 91st N. Y.; J. McGraw, 5th Minn.; R. McKinley, 14th Iowa; – McNeil, 7th Minn.; J. W. Morgan, 21st Wis.; James Meyers, 134th N. Y.; W. H. McCullum, 1st Ohio; Luther Mendenhall, 1st Pa. Res. Chas. Nelson, 27th Mich.; C. A. Nichols, 27th Mich.; Sherman Norris, 7th Ohio; W. A. Noble, 13th Mich.; W. L. Nichols, 17th Ill.; 618Peter Needam, 40th Ind.; A. D. L. Newman, 50th Wis.; J. H. Niel, 14th Mo. R. H. O’Neale, 2nd U. S.; F. A. Olmstead, 27th Iowa; Chris. Ottinger, 5th Ohio; H. C. Osterhout, 101st Ohio; John Orr, 107th N. Y.; J. G. Osborne, 92nd Ohio; Robert Oliver, 55th Ill. Geo. R. Page, 1st Minn. Rang; Wm. Phalen, 27th Wis.; A. G. Peabody, 51st Wis.; J. H. Porter, 38th Wis.; L. W. Palmer, 59th Ind.; W. H. Pierce, U. S. N.; W. G. Peek, 12th Ind.; Edward Payne, 198th Ohio; S. E. Phillips, 50th Wis.; J. E. Patten, 10th N. Y.; Hiram Parsons, 7th Ohio; Thos. H. Pressnell, 1st Minn.; August Polman, 35th Mass.; S. M. Pellow, 3rd Mich.; Franklin Paine, 1st Minn.; R. Patton, 13th Pa.; E. D. Paxon, 10th Mich.; Chas. C. Plummer, 44th Ohio; W. B. Patton, 4th Minn.; W. H. Pride; E. M. Pope, 8th N. Y.; Alfred Parker, 3rd Iowa; F. E. Phillips, 22nd Me. G. V. Quillard, 7th N. Y. Inf. Wm. Ross, 18th Mich.; J. M. Riley, 108th Ind.; G. A. Robinson, 100th U. S. Cav.; J. F. Russell, 8th Minn.; J. G. Rakowsky, 58th Ohio; G. E. Ramsey, N. S. N.; Asa Rockwell, 5th Iowa; H. T. Robbins, 7th N. H.; H A. Robbins, 16th Wis.; C. W. Rossiter, 7th Ohio; G. J. Ruddy, 5th Conn.; N. O. Roswell, 12th Iowa; J. G. Robinson, 1st Mich.; Andrew Riefer, 16th Mich.; M. C. Russell, 2nd Minn.; Edward Rice, 2nd Wis.; J. R. Randall, 18th Mich.; G. W. Ryan, 50th Pa.; John M. Rich, 7th Pa.; Richard Redman, 15th N. Y.; James Riddle, 66th Ohio; E. R. Rockwell, 3rd Md. Cav.; E. B. Ryan, 21st Wis.; F. Risland, 48th Wis.; Ira J. Richardson, 68th N. Y.; Warren Rice, 60th N. Y.; Lafayette Robinson, 52nd Ill.; Chas. H. Reid, 2nd Vt.; Arthur W. Ridd, 2nd Mich.; James B. Rice, 29th Wis.; W. H. Reeves, 35th Mass. William Shaw, 13th Iowa; Asa Shepherd, 62nd Ill.; E. Slaughter, 3rd Wis.; W. H. Smith, 2nd Minn.; P. W. Smith, 59th N. Y.; F. M. Smith, 46th Ind.; L. C. Smith, 4th Wis.; L. J. Smith, 20th Pa. Cav.; Wm. Schmidt, 37th Ohio; P. P. Stewart, 1st Me.; D. S. Scott, 16th Ill.; D. W. Scott, 23rd U. S. Cav.; W. W. Scott, 1st Me.; C. Stoots, 118th Ind.; J. D. Sourwinn, 14th Pa.; R. W. Sanburn, 2nd Minn.; Chas. Stewart, 4th Minn.; Thomas Stokes, 7th Minn.; R. B. Stone, 1st Mich.; S. W. Sherman, 55th Ill.; Rudolph Segar, 1st Mich.; J. W. Spohn, 50th Wis.; F. W. Spear, 8th Mich.; Joseph Stickney, 18th Mich.; Chas. Simson, 10th N. Y.; John Saxton, 1st Minn.; W. D. Sharp, U. S. N.; Chas. E. Salter, 14th Conn.; G. K. Swan, 2nd Cal.; C. H. Stockin, 105th Ohio; Franklin P. Simpson, 2nd N. Y.; Fred Stauff, 4th Minn.; James Stratton, 3rd Mich.; J. S. Stewart, V. R. C.; Frank Shepard, 5th N. Y.; John Shaw, 14th Wis.; O. P. Stearns, 39th U. S. Cav.; Conrad Schoffer, 1st Minn.; Karl Stackmusser, 45th Wis.; R. L. Scoville, 14th N. Y.; H. S. Sawyer, 17th N. Y.; Jonas Strauss, 56th N. Y.; Joseph Seruna, 27th Mich.; Peter St. George, 1st Ohio; Joseph St. George, 17th Ohio; Aaron Springstead, 102nd N. Y.; A. O. Strickland, 194th N. Y.; T. W. Streeter, 17th Wis.; Geo. Skelton, 38th Iowa; B. H. Smith, 47th Wis.; McKeon Smith, 137th Pa.; David S. Scott; J. W. Stewart; W. R. Schendel, 7th Ind.; H. E. Skelton, 90th N. Y.; Geo. Singleton, 1st Ind.; Louis Sandion, 6th Mich. Cav.; William Simpler, 76th Pa.; W. H. Smallwood, 76th U. S. Cav.; W. P. Strickland, 121st N. Y. Charles F. Todd, 140th Ill.; Samuel Thompson, 85th N. Y.; J. E. Teft, 12th U. S.; John A. Trow, 13th Mass.; J. H. Triggs, 7th Iowa; J. B. Thomas, 1st Mich.; W. G. Ten Brook, 107th N. Y.; E. A. Tyler, 619 4th Minn.; J. W. Thompson, 142nd Ohio; Frank Telford, 74th Ohio; J. J. Tanner, 1st Mich.; C. Thompson, 5th Wis. John H. Upham, 149th N. Y.; N. L. Upham, 35th N. J. W. H. Van Valkenberg, 4th Minn.; W. F. Verrill, 13th Me.; John Van Allen. Geo. Wiseman, 14th Ohio; Thomas A. Whittaker, 131st Ohio; S. F. White, 28th Mich.; V. S. Wilkinson, 9th Ill.; Louis Wolfrom, 16th N. Y.; J. N. Weldon, 5th Conn.; Andrew Wilson, U. S. N.; J. E. West, 3rd N. J.; Theophilus Wilson, 85th Pa.; W. J. Wallace, 188th Pa.; J. R. Wagner, 40th Wis.; Albert Woolson, 1st Minn.; Hiram Whire, 25th U. S. Col. Inf.; W. W. Wood, U. S. N.; William Williams, 79th U.S. Col. Inf.; Jacob Wood, 18th Ind.; C. G. Wilson, 198th Ohio; J. R. Ward, 155th N. Y.; J. H. Woon, U. S. N.; Geo. W. West, 8th Me.; S. M. Wessenberg, 11th Ohio; Geo. E. Wells, 60th Ohio; John Wadleigh, 18th Wis.; James Wallace, 14th U. S. Inf.; Henry Wickey, 16th Ohio; J. W. Western, 16th N. Y.; Zavier Wehrli, 10th Ill.; Henry Wellgarde, 10th Minn.; Alvin White, 1st N. Y.; Chas. S. Weaver, 3rd Mass.; Hampton Wade, 2nd Ill.; Patrick Walsh, 7th Ind.; E. L. Woodward, 3rd Minn.; C. M. Wilson, 175th Ohio; G. M. Wilson, 24th N. Y.; W. S. Woodbridge, 1st Kans. Cav.; C. H. Wilcox, 75th N. Y.; E. S. Woodworth, 3rd Minn.; – Wright. John Young, 1st Minn.

The last word Mr. Dailey seems to have written was “Wright.” No initial or regiment are shown opposite the name, but underneath is an address, indicating perhaps that he intended communicating with that address. Unfortunately he was not able to go further. Still, Asa Dailey’s is by far the most complete list of Civil War soldiers of St. Louis County ever compiled.

May he rest in peace, knowing that he has well served his comrades.

Grand Army Activities.-Since the mustering out of the surviving patriots in 1865, and their entry then into civil life, the histories of villages, cities, towns, states, and of the nation make it clear that the strongest force in American life has been that which shouldered the gun during the war. In various walks of civil life the men who proved their strength of character and purpose during the trying years of civil war took a prominent part. They and their sons and daughters have held the nation’s helm in all that has since threatened; and some have lived long enough to see that their grandchildren were destined to be the backbone which would not bend to the pressure of the mighty German military force in the most recent of the nation’s wars. The work of the men of Civil War record has been especially evident through the activities of the Grand Army of the Republic once so strong but, alas, now faltering in old age, and unable now to carry on its purpose with the virility and vigor of the latter decades of the nineteenth century. St. Louis County, in common with other districts throughout the country, has had the good fortune to have had a strong and active grand-army force; and it must be said that the county, as a whole, have sought to show the Grand Army posts that it appreciated the service of its members, both in military and in civil activities. One of the finest meeting places for a Grand Army post is that set apart and dedicated to their use in the Court House at Duluth.

And one of the most recent and gratifying indications that the Grand Army posts of St. Louis County are still usefully functioning is seen in the recent installation of an inspiring statue, entitled “Patriotism,” on Court House Square, Duluth, placed there as a gift Vol. II-8 621to the city of Duluth from the J. B. Culver post of the Grand Army of the Republic to commemorate the service of soldiers and sailors to the nation in time of war.

The cornerstone of the statue was laid on Memorial Day of 1918, and on that day of 1919, it was dedicated by Dr. J. D,. Budd, commander of the J. B. Culver post. The invocation and benediction were given by Rev. H. A. Ingham.

The statue stands as a recognition of the past, and as the hope of the future, for “Patriotism” will ever be the proud possession of St. Louis County; sons and grandsons of the Civil War patriots have shown a like strength, and if there be a future need, the great-grandsons will probably rally to the flag as fervently patriotic and self sacrificing as were their forebears. Such is the heritage passed on by the stalwart men of 1861-65.


  • Van Brunt, Walter, ed. Duluth and St. Louis County, Minnesota Vols. 1 – 3. The American Historical Society. Chicago: 1922.
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