Elmira, New York, native Edwin S. Radcliffe (1861–1935) moved to St. Paul in 1858 and practiced at his father Abraham’s firm until moving to Duluth in 1889, where he practiced with Charles McMillen until 1892. Together they designed the Spalding House, the Burrows Block, Whittier School, the 1893 First Methodist Church and the Howe/Glencoe Building and Glass Block. After splitting from McMillen, Radcliffe partnered with Charles E. Willoughby until 1900. He practiced alone until 1907, when he formed a new partnership with Vernon J. Price. Several of Radcliffe’s designs still grace Duluth: the 1893 Jefferson School (916 East 3rd Street, now apartments), the 1910 George and Irene Fay House (at 2032 East Superior Street), and the 1896 Duluth Armory at 201-–207 East First Street, which became the Shrine Auditorium in 1917.