History of Eveleth, Minnesota (through 1922)

The city of Eveleth, one of the leading and most active incorporated places of the ranges, had its beginning in mining explorations.

Therefore, properly, a historical review of its development should begin with data regarding its mining. And no more authoritative information could be obtained than from the man who, above all others, was chiefly responsible for the founding of the village of Eveleth.

David T. Adams, a mining explorer of Duluth, whose first trip over the Mesabi range was in 1883, when he “was attracted to the possibility of the existence of commercial bodies of hematite ore on the southern slope, or in the lowlands of the Mesaba,” was one of the most successful of the early explorers of the Mesabi range.

He was the first to discover marketable ore, finding it on the Cincinnati in 1891, Captain Kehoe almost simultaneously finding blue ore on the Biwabik workings. In the next year Adams, acting for A. E. Humphreys, George G. Atkins, and others, “had seventeen camps in operation in township 58-17,” mainly in the Virginia district.

In a narrative written specially for the current historical work Mr. Adams makes the following statements regarding his early operations in the Eveleth district: “In, or about, the month of July, 1892, I discovered coloring on the south line of section 30, 58-17, by means of a spring pole drill, operated by Hugh McMahon and Noble Beatty-the first operation of the kind undertaken on the range.

“In the month of September of that year an option was acquired by the late Peter L. Kimberly from the late Simon J. Murphy, George O. Robinson, E. M. Fowler and others, on three quarter-sections, which I had previously selected, in sections 31 and 32 of 58-17, and were designated as selections Nos. 1, 2 and 3, and the explorations on these selections were known as Adams Nos. 1, 2 and 3. A little later, George L. Cheeseborough secured an option from these same parties, on the sw. qr. of section 31, which I had previously selected and which was selection No. 4, known as the Cheeseborough explorations.

“On or about the first of October, 1892, I started explorations in the northern part of section 31 on the Adams No. 1, and the first ore discovered in what is now known as the Eveleth Group of Mines, or anywhere on the southern slope of the hills running down from Virginia, was discovered there in my first pit. (On this, as on all former and later explorations I always located my own pits.) Thomas Short was in charge of the men, and under him work proceeded rapidly.

It was not long before a very large body of what is now the standard ore of the range was discovered.

“Shortly thereafter, I discovered ore in the Cheeseborough.

“My next discovery was on Selection No. 2 of the Adams explorations, but the ore in the discovery pit on this selection was not considered a commercial ore at the time, and as Kimberly Jones and myself wanted the land for townsite purposes, the exploration was abandoned, our option surrendered, and the surface rights finally purchased by us.

“A little ore was found on Selection No. 3 of the Adams explorations, and was finally consolidated with Selection No. 1 of the Adams.

“On January 9, 1893, the Adams Mining Company was organized by Mr. Kimberly, Mr. Jones and myself, on Selection No. 1, in the northern part of the section.

“Selection No. 4, the Cheeseborough, became known as the Cloquet.

“The next deposit of ore to be discovered by me in the vicinity was on the nw.-nw. of section 5, and the n. half of section 6, township 57-17, in the month of November, 1893, which is now known as the Fayal No. 1. Fifty-one per cent of the capital stock of the Adams Mining Company was sold to John D. Rockefeller, for the Lake Superior Consolidated Iron Mines, in the month of July, 1893.” (The cash consideration for the transfer was $410,000.) “The Fayal No. 1 was explored by the Mclnnis Mining Company, which was organized by me on the’31st of January, 1894, in honor of the late Neil McInnis, .who had been my purchasing agent of goods to supply the camps, and paymaster during the latter part of my explorations in connection with Humphreys and Atkins, on the Virginia Group of Mines, and who also acted in the same capacity for the Adams Mining Company, during their development of the Adams mine. The late Marvin Van Buskirk was in charge of the men, and under him the work of development was rapid indeed. The Mclnnis Mining Company finally sold ‘their lease on the Fayal No. 1 to the Chicago Minnesota Ore Company on September 6, 1894.

“About two and a half years later, I discovered ore on that part of ‘section 5, township 57-17, which was known as the South Fayal.” Winchell’s Review (1894).-Horace V. Winchell, in the winter of 1894-95, wrote of mining development in the “Eveleth Group of Mines” as follows: Adams Mine.-“This property is being developed by the Consolidated Company. The mine is in the north half of section 31, 58-17.

It is operated on a lease from Chicago and Michigan lumberman, who own the fee. This deposit of ore is supposed to be one of the largest on the Mesabi range, and to contain ore of more than average value, because of its granular and shaly nature … It is being stripped at present. Ore was discovered here by Neil McInnis and D. T. Adams, of Duluth, in 1893. The superintendent is Mr. J. H. Hearding.

Vega Mine.-“West of the Adams is the Vega, lying under too great a burden of glacial till to permit of open cut mining. It produced 5,628 tons of ore in 1894, and is under the direction of Mr. Geo. St. Clair.

Fayal Mine.-“This is one of the recent acquisitions of the Minnesota Iron Company. It … was first discovered in 1894.

Other properties in this vicinity, and in section 34, 58-17, are known to contain more or less ore, but are not being very rapidly developed at present. This mine is also under the direction of Captain Wallace, assistant general manager of the Minnesota Iron Company.” The Vega, referred to by Mr. Winchell, was “operated for a time as the Cloquet by Joseph Sellwood” stated another writer, adding that Sellwood “finally turned it over to the Minnesota Iron Company.” It later became part of the Adams-Spruce mine. It included part of the old townsite of Eveleth. Regarding the Adams Mine, 513the same writer (1906) stated that “Credit for discovery of the first ore in the Eveleth field … is due to D. T. Adams and Neil Mclnnis, who commenced explorations on … the Adams mine on October 1, 1892. A lease on all the land in sections 30 and 31 was taken by D. T. Adams, Neil Mclnnis, P. L. Kimberly and John T. Jones, from Messrs. Robinson and Flynn, the Detroit lumbermen.

Ore was found in the first test-pit put down under the direction of Mr. Mclnnis. The writer visited the camp in his company soon after the explorations were started.” Neil Mclnnis, in 1906, put into writing his “Recollections of early mining explorations.” After referring to the excitement that followed the discovery of blue ore on the Biwabik in 1891, stated: “The winter coming on shortly after this discovery, not very much was done until the- early spring of 1892, when numerous companies were organized, and prospecting commenced in great earnest.

March of that year brought the writer from Tower, and associating with A. E. Humphreys (one of the chief promoters of that day), had immediate charge of twelve camps, beginning at the Hale and Kanawha mines, section 1, town 58, range 16, to town 58, range 19, the principal camp, known as headquarters, being in section 9, town 58, range 17, near the present city of Virginia. The results of these explorations amounted to the following: the Kanawha, Cincinnati, Lincoln, Commodore, Franklin, Lone Jack, Moose, and Auburn mines.

“Mention should be made of David T. Adams, of Duluth, as the party selected by Mr. Humphreys to go out into the wilderness during the severe winter of ’91 and ’92, and select the land above-stated for exploration, and who, after severing his connection with Mr. Humphreys and associating himself with John T. Jones, of Iron Mountain, Mich., and the late P. L. Kimberly, of Sharon, Pa., secured option and afterwards leases on land now occupied by the great mines -the Adams, Spruce and a portion of the Fayal.

“This brought the writer down from the Humphreys camp, and on the first of October, 1892, began the exploration of lands in section 31, town 58, range 17, and showing up what is now known as the Adams mine. A camp was established. One or two of the log buildings can yet be seen. A force of 45 men was used during the winter of 1892-93. Buckets and windlass, picks and shovels were the only tools used to show up the big deposit and in the early summer of 1893 the lease of the Adams mine was turned over to the Consolidated Mining Company, on the recommendation of their chief and capable mining expert at that time, Mr. W. J. Olcott.

“With the summer of 1893 came the depression in the iron business, and consequently in the prospecting, nothing doing; men we had paid $40, or more, a month, and their board, now could not get a day’s work anywhere.

A small start was made to establish the town of Eveleth. Hank Hookwith came in to open a saloon. Archie McComb had a hotel building (afterwards destroyed by fire), and Jerry Sullivan had a boarding house on the site of the future town … In September, Mr. Adams, already referred to, and myself, in looking over the prospects around the neighborhood, thought of doing a little work on lands now covered by the great Fayal mine. I made known to the population of Eveleth at that time, which consisted of the three named above, that I was going to start a crew test-pitting, and the result was McComb, Tookwith and Sullivan worked six months, sinking pits, at $1.25 a day, during the fall and winter of 1893, resulting in showing to the world the beginning of that great mine on section 5, town 57-17.” 514A study of the foregoing gives one an idea of the principal mining operations that were destined to find communal expression in the establishment of Eveleth. And one should not leave the subject of pioneer mining in the Eveleth Group without making reference to one worthy pioneer of mining as well as of Eveleth. Marvin Van Buskirk, first president of the village of Eveleth, was one of the e:arly lieutenants of David T. Adams. He directed the operations that discovered ore on several valuable properties, although he apparently did not profit much by his work. David T. Adams, in a letter to his friend, J. C. Poole, another pioneer of Eveleth, stated, on February 7, 1920: “The greater part of the explorations are what is now known as the Adams mine was done by Thomas Short, under my supervision, until I replaced him by the late Marvin Van Buskirk. The late Neil Mclnnis was paymaster for the company, timekeeper and purchasing agent for the camp.” The subsequent history of these pioneer mines of the Eveleth group is as follows: Adams Mine.-The property, combined with others, was for many years under the direction of Capt. John H. Hearding, as stperintendent, the mining being mostly underground. The mines are now known as the Adams-Spruce. Captain J. H. Hearding became assistant general manager of the Oliver Iron Mining Company in 1909, and thereafter had to devote the whole of his time to executive affairs in the head offices of the company at Duluth. The present general superintendent at Eveleth is Charles Grabowsky. Work has been almost constant since the beginning at the Adams-Spruce, which has been one-of the principal mainstays of Eveleth. Up to the end of 1919, the Adams mine had shipped 22,310,351 tons, in some years shipping a million and a half tons. Included in that total are the outputs of the Cloquet, or Vega, mine, the Hull 40, and the Nelson, all adjoining properties and grouped as one. The Spruce gave 11,182,140 tons to end of 1919.

Fayal Mine.-That also is a combination of several, and, as in late years constituted, is classed among the great mines of the Mesabi range. Adams and Mclnnis were interested in the “forty,” nw.-nw.

of section 5, 57-17, which “forty” they leased from E. F. Fowler, of Detroit, Mich., forming the Mclnnis Mining Company to operate it.

Their lease they sold to the Minnesota Iron Company. Louis Rouchleau purchased 80 acres adjoining the Mclnnis for $50,000, eventually transferring to the Minnesota Iron Company for $125,000.

The remainder of the Fayal property was leased from Murphy, Dorr and Flynn by the Minnesota Iron Company direct. Eventually, of course, the Fayal mines passed to the Oliver Iron Mining Company, which has since controlled them. Captain Richard R. Trezona was superintendent for many years. Of late years Wm. F. Pellenz, Jr., has been superintendent of the Fayal mines, of sections 5 and 6, 57-17.

The mines are designated the Fayal Fee, Fayal No. 1, No. 2, No. 3 and No. 4; and to the end of 1919 they had yielded an aggregate of 29,908,246 tons, more than a million tons a year since the beginning.

At first, the mining was by shaft, but later three different systems were being operated concurrently. There were two large open pits, milling being carried on in one and loading direct into cars with steam shovels in the other, while underground mining was continued.

The Leonidas mine, which may be considered to be within the Eveleth group, is referred to in the Nichols township chapter. And several of the mines reviewed in the Gilbert chapter may be con- 515sidered as within the sphere of Eveleth. Nevertheless, if Eveleth be credited with only the Fayal and Adams mines, the available ore deposits on these two are sufficient to ensure Eveleth a definite degree of prosperity, probably growth, up to the time when it will have other interests and assets to supplement or take the place of its present dependence upon mining activities. The Adams-Spruce mines have proved deposits of iron ore aggregating to more than fifty-two million tons, and the five Fayal mines have a reserve of about seventeen million tons, enough to keep Eveleth in its present degree of prosperity for at least a generation. And a generation should see the development in agriculture of all the outlying land, a development which will ensure stable and permanent prosperity to Eveleth, assuming it does not in the meantime become a manufacturing city, or that other large ore deposits are not “shown up,” which is always possible.

Eveleth, therefore, is reasonably sure of prosperous continuance as a city.


Platting of Original Townsite.-Again, it is proper to refer to, and quote, the narrative of David T. Adams, who was the founder, or was the most active among the founders, of the village of Eveleth. He writes, under date of December 7, 1920: “I promoted the townsite of Eveleth in the year 1893. The original plat consisted of the w.

half of the se. quarter of section 31, township 58-17. It was surveyed by C. E. Bailey, and the plat was filed for record April 22nd of that year. My associates in the original townsite (project) were Peter L. Kimberly, John T. Jones and Fred Robinson, the latter of Detroit, Michigan. Shortly after the plat was filed for record, I bought out Mr. Kimberly and Mr. Jones. Mr. Robinson held a tenth interest, and remained in the townsite throughout.

“In finding a suitable name for the town …I had my troubles. I wanted to name it Robinson, that being the name of one of the fee owners of the Adams mine. Elisha A. Flynn, law-partner of Mr. Robinson, however, objected. I never knew why, but I always surmised that he thought that the town would never amount to anything, and did not want his name attached to it. I then asked the name of the cruiser who estimated the timber on the land when they bought it, and they told me his name was Eveleth. I thought 516over the name of Eveleth for some time, comparing it with other names, such as Iron Point, Iron City, etc., and the more I thought the name Eveleth over, the better I liked it; and as it seemed to be an easy name for the Scandinavian element to pronounce, I decided on that name. I then wrote to Mr. Eveleth for permission to use his name. He consented; hence the name ‘Eveleth’ was adopted.” Neil McInnis, who evidently was consulted regarding the naming of the city-to-be, wrote, in 1906, upon that point: “Many a name proposed … had to be abandoned, because it was already in existence in some other portion of the state. However, we finally settled this matter by naming the town after a woodsman from Michigan, sent up here about twenty years ago in the interests of Robinson, Flinn and Fowler, to pick up pine lands. This man’s name was Eveleth.” Primitive Living.-For a year or more after the platting of the townsite, life in Eveleth had a spartan aspect and rigor. “On the slope” Dr. More had “a little red shack,” which, because he happened to be a physician, and a good one, and in emergency could handle a surgical case in it, was called a hospital; the company office was a small log cabin; the men of the camp lived as best they could, some in “boarding houses,” and some under canvas, and worked “for grub stakes,” some, if not all of them, during the period of extreme financial stringency of 1893, and considered themselves fortunate in having work at all. It is said that at least two of the pioneers lived “for a time” on moose meat. The mail came in from Virginia by dog-team during the winter of 1892-93, and possibly 1893-94; and even well into 1894 there were only four or five buildings on the townsite, according to one account, so that newcomers had to “make-shift” under canvas, until a frame building could be put together. Another account states that “about a dozen buildings were erected in 1894 upon the first site.” Petition to Incorporate.-Seeing that the county commissioners approved the holding of an election, in August, 1893, to decide whether Eveleth should be made an incorporated place, or should not, it is rather surprising that the first election of officials did not take place until October 18, 1894.

A petition, presented to the county commissioners on June 9, 1893, by Neil Mclnnis, Joseph Elliott and Thomas Short, sought permission to proceed with the legal measures whereby the residents “upon the western half of the southeast quarter of section 31, of township 58-17 (which lands had been platted, and the plat duly filed, on April 22, 1893, with the Register of Deeds), might, if the majority favored it, institute corporate government of the community under the provisions of chapter 145, Laws of 1885.” The signers of the petition were: Neil Mclnnis, Joseph Elliott, Thomas Short, Archie McArthur, John Nelson, Rt. Fogarty, Thomas Simpson, Henry Hookwith, Archer McCombs, John White, Fred Whitney, Aaron Johnson, John Gray, L. Jacobson, Fred Nelson, John Johnson, Ole Johnson, John Goodwin, Edward Grayson, John Elfstrom, Peter Elfstrom, John Hill, Martin Webber, John Morrow, Peter Enright, John Mullens, Axel Johnson, Martin Erickson, John Graham, and Fred Reynolds. The three first-named testified to the accuracy of the statements made in petition, one important statement being that at the time of the circulation of the paper for signatures (June, 1893), a census then taken of the residents within the territory for which incorporation was sought disclosed the fact that there were then living on it two hundred persons.

517Commissioners Approve Petition.-On June 13, 1893, the petition was considered at the session of the Board of County Commissioners, and resolution was passed, approving of the proposed incorporation, as the Village of Eveleth. Consequently, a date was set upon which legal voters should assemble and cast a vote for, or against, the sought incorporation. The commissioners ordered “election to be held on July 25, 1893, at the building of Thomas Short, lot 23, block 8, Eveleth.” And they appointed “Neil Mclnnis, Tom Short and Joe Eliot” to act as inspectors of election at that gathering. Copies of “Notice of Election” were posted “at McComb and Wilson’s boarding house, at H. Hookwith’s store, at Thomas Short’s building, at Jerry Sullivan’s boarding house, and at Edward Simpson’s place of business,” by Neil Mclnnis.

The voting, apparently, took place, and, presumably, was in favor of the proposed incorporation, for the county commissioners, on August 11, 1893, “gave notice to the legal voters to meet and organize and elect officers for the ensuing year,” on August 26, 1893. No record of election is on file in the county offices, as is required by law, and, presumably, the election was not held.


It is possible that the population so dwindled during the depression of 1893 that the few remaining decided not to proceed with the election. Indeed, Neil Mclnnis, in his narrative, before-quoted, stated that he drew to the Fayal exploratory work in September, 1893, the whole of the man-power of Eveleth, namely, Hank Hookwith, Archie McComb, and Jerry Sullivan; and these men were too busy digging for their bread, “at $1.25 a day,” during that fall and winter, to have much inclination to pursue matters of town-planning and corporate government.” Marvin Van Buskirk either had not yet come into the neighborhood, or was subordinate to Thomas Short at the Adams camp.

Soon, however, he was in charge of the mining operations, and during the next year seems to have become very popular, and much respected, among his co-workers. So much is evident in the result of the first election.

First Officials.-On October 5, 1894, the county commissioners again “gave notice” to the legal voters of Eveleth “to meet and organize and elect officers for the ensuing year,” on October 18th, 1894, “at the corner store of the Adams Block.” Accordingly “a meeting of voters of Eveleth” was held on October 18, 1894, states 518the first entry in the minute book of the trustees of the Village of Eveleth, “at 9:00, a. m., for the purpose of nominating a board of judges of election.” Marvin Van Buskirk was “appointed chairman of committee on nominations” and Frank Kempffer, secretary. John Salvo and Frank Kempffer were appointed judges, with Joseph Leach and Annie Burnett acting as clerks. The voting then proceeded, and the result was in due course announced by the judges, who found Marvin Van Buskirk legally elected to the office of president. Ninety-one votes were cast in his favor, his candidacy having been unopposed.

The trustees were Henry Hookwith, John Grey and W. H. Shea, having received 60, 91, and 57 votes respectively, the unsuccessful candidates being Alfred Riff and John Anderson, with 31 and 34 votes respectively. A. S. Erickson was elected recorder, having received 57 votes; S. S. Childers became treasurer, receiving 91 votes; John F. Towell and Chas. Wyman were elected justices of the peace, and Jerry Sullivan, constable, having received 90 votes.

First Council Meeting.-The first meeting of trustees was held “in the back room of Stetton’s store,” on October 25, 1894. Present at the meeting were: M. Van Buskirk, president; John Grey, Hy. Hookwith, and W. H. Shea, trustees; A. S. Erickson, recorder.

Marvin Van Buskirk was “appointed a committee of one, to secure room and furnishing, to be used as a council chamber,” which appointment supports the statement that the first meeting of the village council was held “in the townsite company’s frame building.” Possibly, the “back room of Stetton’s store” was the “room and furnishing” secured by President Van Bilskirk, after that first meeting in the townsite company’s building. It is known that council meetings in the first year “used to be held” in Stetton’s store.” First Village Hall.-After a year or so of the use of a rented room as council chamber, the village officials moved into a building of their own. The first village hall was a two-story frame structure, erected at a cost of $656.69, in 1895. It was built upon lot No. 36, in block 12, of the “old town,” the village paying the townsite company $200 for the lot. Eventually, the hall was moved to the new town, and now stands on Grant Avenue, “next to Max Stipetich’s saloon.” Latterly, it has served as a cinema.

First Marshal.-Jerry Sullivan was appointed marshal on November 1, 1894, at $30.00 a month, having secured the office by competitive sealed bid. The marshal’s hours of duty were from 9:00 p. m. to 7:00 a. m. In 1896, the salary of the marshal was $75.00 a month.

First Fire Company.-A volunteer fire company was formed in June, 1895. It consisted of fifteen members, the compensation to firemen being fixed at one dollar for each call, with an additional fifty cents for each hour after the first. One of the first measures instituted for the purpose of fire protection was the employment, in January, 1895, of “a force of men to cut, pile and burn, for a distance of 250 feet back from the borders of the village.” First Board of Health.-A board of health was organized on February 4, 1895. Members of the board were Dr. H. L. Darms, John Grey, and B. J. McCormick. Dr. Darms was also one of the village trustees in its first year, taking the place of W. H. Shea, who “moved away” early in 1895.

First Hotel.-The first hotel was probably that built in 1893 by Archie McComb. But it was “not of much account.” In May, 1895, owners of lots on Jones Street petitioned the trustees of the village “to condemn, as a street, the east 120 feet of Jones Street, between 519blocks 10 and 11, and allow some to revert to the townsite owners,” the Duluth Mining and Investment Company, provided they deed the land to David T. Adams “for immediate construction of a good first-class hotel building” thereon. Although that project did not carry, it is stated that David T. Adams built the first hotel in Eveleth.

It was called the McInnis Hotel and was situated on the southeast corner of Grant Avenue and Jackson Street. Charles Jesmore was the first manager. The building still stands.

First School.-The first school was “in the valley by the creek.” It was opened in 1895, and the first teacher was Florence Kent, who came from Virginia. The schoolhouse was “a one-story frame shack,” and its furniture consisted of “two’benches and a plank table,” with a small table for the teacher. Some of the pupils enrolled at that school in 1895 were: Charlie Higgins, Rosie Walker, Fred Chilters, and several of the children of the Gross, Springer, and Van Buskirk families. There were five or six of the Gross children, three girls and two or three boys; they drove to school each morning from their homestead, about two or three miles away. There were two Spring- TIIE PRESENT MORE HOSPITAL, EVELETH. (THE FIRST MORE HOSPITAL WAS “ON THE SLOPE” WITH THE PIONEERS; AND IT WAS “A LITTLE RED SHACK”) ers, Bert and Otis; and of the Van Buskirk family, Tony, Mae, and Anna attended the first school. By the way, Tony Van Buskirk, now city clerk, was the first boy to come to Eveleth, it has been stated.

He came with his mother and sisters, from Crystal Falls, Michigan, in 1893, or 1894, to join their father, who had come earlier. They came by rail as far as Virginia, or rather as far as the Auburn mine, walking from there into Eveleth. The family had to live in a tent for a couple of weeks while a house was being built for them.

First Church.-The first church built in Eveleth was in 1896, for the MethoJist Episcopal society, which was organized on September 17, 1895. Services were held in the schoolhouse until March, 1896, when “a neat frame building was dedicated.” The Rev. Olin J. Gary, a local preacher, was the first pastor. He and Russell and Howard Buckthought were the first trustees, and the church was built under his supervision. “On February 12, 1896, lots were secured, as donation, from E. M. Fowler, of Chicago, and a subscription paper 520was then started for the purpose of raising funds for erection of a church building.” The next pastor was L. F. Merritt (1896-97). He was succeeded by C. H. Stevenson, and in 1898, Rev. M. O. Stockland was in charge. A new church was built during his pastorate, which ended in October, 1901, when Rev. R. J. Taylor came.

First Postmaster.-The first postmaster was P. E. Dowling. He also had the first drug store in Eveleth.

Pay of Pioneer Village Officials.-In 1896, the president received $10 a month; the recorder, $25 a month, the street commissioner, $2.50 a day, “for actual services”; the marshal, $75, and his deputy, $60 a month; the waterworks engineer, $75; the janitor at Village Hall, $30 a month, it being also his duty to light street lamps, without extra pay. Unskilled labor was secured at $1.75 a day, and a team at $4 a day.

First Teamster.-John Morrow. was the first teamster in Eveleth.

David T. Adams, in February, 1920, wrote: “John Morrow, who I believe is now living in the old Adams camp, was teamster for the company during the explorations, and is the only one of the old employees left on the Mesabi range.” He lives with his wife in the log cabin which was originally the office of the Adams Mining Company, which cabin it was reecntly stated had “been purchased by the city, and will be given a permanent place in one of the city parks as a monument to the early mining industry.” First Storekeeper.-The first storekeeper was Stetton, it has been stated, so possibly the “store” of Hy. Hookwith, upon which “Notice of Election” was declared to have been posted in June, 1893, was not a store at all, but a hotel.

First Sawmill.-The erection of a sawmill was a necessity as soon as it became evident that a community would develop near the Adams explorations. One was built by David T. Adams near what is now No. 5 shaft of the Spruce mine. It was burned down in 1896 or 1897.

First Bond Issue.-On May 9, 1895, the voters approved the issuance of bonds to the amount of $3,000, “for the construction of a system of waterworks.” Bond No. 1, of one thousand dollars denomination, and bearing date June 1, 1895, “payable one year later,” was bought by David T. Adams. The interest was 8 per cent, and Mr.

Adams became “security” for the whole issue. In July, 1895, he took up the whole issue, “at face value.” Water System.-Thus, the village was enabled to build its first water plant. It served until 1905, when a new system was installed, at an expense of $60,000, providing “an excellent supply of water from St. Mary’s lake, two and a half miles distant.” In 1914, “an entirely new system of waterworks” was completed, at a cost of $65,- 000. The water plant in 1920 comprised two motor-driven centrifugal pumps, with a capacity of 1,600,000 gallons daily, and two steam pumps of one million daily capacity. Two mains, one 16-inch and the other 10-inch, “carry the water from St. Mary’s lake to the elevated tank of 300,000 gallons capacity, located at the highest point in the city.” The water is “soft and pure.” About fifteen miles of water mains are in use. In July, 1920, 26,000,000 gallons were pumped at a cost of 6 cents a thousand gallons. The superintendent is F. E. Forristel.

Lighting.-On May 28, 1896, Frank McCormick, of Duluth, was given a franchise, “for ten years,” to supply Eveleth with electric light, the village “contracting for seven arc street lights at ten dollars each per month,” and stipulating that private users be supplied at 521″not to exceed one cent per hour per light of 16 c. p.” McCormick did not complete the installation within the time limit set, but, receiving an extension of time, he ultimately established a satisfactory lighting system. His plant and franchise eventually passed, by sale, to C. H. Webster, who later met his death at the plant, being instantly killed when struck by fragments of a flywheel that broke. His widow sold the plant to Alexander Hughes of Duluth, who, on August 9, 1901, was confirmed in the ownership of the franchise, and also some time later was granted a franchise to establish a heating system. In 1914, there were, on Eveleth main thoroughfares, fifty-one standards of five lights each, making a “white way” for seven blocks; and in addition, eighty-four arc lights. A public heating system had just been installed, extending “to most parts of the city.” At about that time the “Home Electric and Heating Company, of Eveleth,” offered to sell its plant to the city, for $134,655.05. The proposed bond issue, however, did not carry, and the lighting, heating, and power utilities at Eveleth are still in private ownership. The Minnesota Utilities Company, of Eveleth, was organized in 1917, with an authorized capital of $650,000. The first president was Neal Brown, of Wausau, Wis. He was succeeded by Cyrus C. Yawkey. Mr. R. M. Heskett is the only officer living at Eveleth; he has been secretary and treasurer since the organization. In addition to the Eveleth service, the company supplies power to Chisholm, and at various places from Eveleth to Deer River, and the company maintains local electrical distributing systems in Kinney, Chisholm, Carson Lake, Kelly Lake, Stevenson, Nashwauk, Calumet, Marble, Taconite, Bovey, Coleraine, Grand Rapids, Cohasset and Deer River. It is only at Eveleth, however, that the company furnishes steam for heating purposes. That utility is a comprehensive one, “most business places and a considerable number of residences” in Eveleth being connected with the steam mains.

Moving of Village.-It was evident, even in 1895, that the village would soon, or eventually, have to be moved from the original townsite, because needed iron ore lay underneath. But it was not a matter that could be disposed of in a short period of time. Indeed, it seems that the removal was not completely effected until the early years of the present century. David T. Adams writes: “In 1895, I re-explored the townsite of Eveleth (which was originally No. 2 of the Adams selections), for the mineral owners, on a percentage basis. I developed a large body of ore on the townsite, and thereafter gave it the name of Spruce mine. It then became necessary, in order to mine out the ore, to vacate the townsite. To do so, I withdrew the lots from sale, and in company with the mineral owners, proceeded to lay out the First Addition to Eveleth, on the east half of the se. quarter of section 31, in the same township.

The plat of the First Addition was filed for record on the 31st day of August, 1896. The Village of Eveleth then annexed its first addition, and the moving of the Village of Eveleth, with its twelve or fifteen hundred inhabitants, on an average of one-fourth of a mile, up the hill, to the east, ensued, at a cost of about $125,000, for moving and repairing the buildings alone, and exclusive of the bonuses paid to each improved-property owner, in the way of an additional lot, or in cash, according to their discretion.” Municipal action regarding the First Addition to Eveleth did not come until 1899. A “petition to annex land platted and designated ‘The First Addition to Eveleth’ was filed with the county auditor on April 4, 1899, and on June 26th, of that year, Village Ordinance No.

22 was passed. Said ordinance ordained that “the east half of the southeast quarter of section thirty-one, township fifty eight north, of range seventeen west, … designated as the ‘First Addition to Eveleth’ (be) declared to be an addition to the said Village of Eveleth, and a part of said village, as effectually as if said territory hereby added had been originally a part of said Village of Eveleth.” At that time, apparently, the removal had not been accomplished, or had not been completed. A 1910 history of the City of Eveleth states that “many of the buildings were moved thither (to the First Addition) in 1900.” Bearing on the good fortune of the early merchants of Eveleth, Mr. D. T. Adams writes: “The opening of the Spruce mine, by Peter L. Kimberly, who had taken another lease on it after the ore body had been thoroughly developed, and the additional men employed in the vicinity by the EVELETH AUDITORIUM I AND ARMiORY opening of the mines, stimulated the business and growth of Eveleth.

The property started to rise in value, and it was not long before a business lot on Grant Avenue, 25×110 feet, would bring from $12,000 to $15,000, or more, per lot, according to the location. But the townsite people had disposed of all their lots. on the business streets, in the way of bonuses, and the inhabitants only profited. The result was that in a few years there were more well-to-do business men along the business street of Eveleth than there were on a like street of Virginia or Hibbing, the other two principal cities of the Mesabi range.” That was a gratifying outcome, for in the early days of the village, its slow advancement must have caused its pioneers many regretful moments. David T. Adams, writing, on February 7, 1920, stated: “I … had some disappointments with my early townsite enterprises. The influence of so many nonbelievers in the existence of ore in the southern part of township 58-17 had its effect, and was plainly revealed when I platted your nl w beautiful City of Eveleth.

Platting the townsite of Virginia a few years earlier, and holding it 523up as the coming metropolis of the Range, made it, indeed, hard for me to induce people to purchase lots and settle in the Town of Eveleth; and it was a long time * * before Eveleth started to grow as it should have grown, and not until the old town was vacated and moved to its present location, to give room for the mining of the Spruce mine, did Eveleth come into its own. But now it is a beautiful and proud city, with enough of the best ore on the Range surrounding it on two sides to continue it as the most steady, prosperous, and longest lived city on the Range. by a margin of many years.” Village Presidents.-The succession of presidents of the Village of Eveleth, from 1894 to 1902, in which year Eveleth became a city, was as follows: 1894-95, Marvin Van Buskirk: 1895-96, H. L. Darms; 1896-97, W. V. Caldwell; 1897-98, Marvin Van Buskirk; 1898-99, Chas. Jesmore; 1899-1900, P. E. Dowling; 1900-02, Chas. Jesmore.

Eveleth Becomes a City.-A petition was circulated in the village in January, 1902, by certain residents, who desired to advance the status of the place, which had reached a state of development that entitled it to a place among the cities of the state. The petition was delivered to the county commissioners on January 13th, and sworn to by Patrick McClory, Eric Gastrin, John A. Healy and Mather Prettner. Hearing of arguments for and against the chartering of the village was set for February 7, 1902, by the county commissioners.

On March 4, 1902, they issued a certificate, ordering election to be held on April 1st. The voting showed that a majority of the residents wished the change of status, brought into effect. 98 voting in favor, and 55 against.

So, Eveleth became a city, Charles Jesmore becoming first mayor.

There was no further change in status until 1913, when. as the result of an election, held on October 7, 1913, a new city charter was adopted, and the city government changed to what is known as the commission form. The mayor and four commissioners assumed direction of, and responsibility for, city affairs. The council, in 1920, consisted of: Victor E. Essling, mayor, with direct responsibility for the departments of Public Health, Sanitation, Police, and General W\relfare; Robert Meyers, commissioner in charge of the department of Accounts and Finances; Wrilliam Morrey, commissioner in charge of department of Parks, Public Grounds, Buildings, and Fire Protection; D. A. Murray, commissioner in charge of department of \Vaterworks and Sewers: Andrew Anderson, commissioner in charge of Streets and Alleys. Anthony Van Buskirk is city clerk.

Mayoral Succession.-Chas. jesmore, 1902-03; Alike Maxwell, 1904-05; Chas. Jesmore, 1906-07; M. B. Maxwell, 1908; WA. J. Smith, 1908 (M. B. Maxwell having died), 1909. 1910; J. S. Saari, 1911-13; J. J. Gleason, for portion of 1914; J. S. Saari, 1914-17; E. H. hatch.

1918-19; V. E. Essling, 1920.

City Hall.-The present city hall has been in use for many years.

It was built in 1906, at a cost of $20,000. The architect was \. T.

Bray, of Duluth, and the contractor. Edward Jackson. The cornerstone was laid June 16, 1~26, and the hall was at first fitted so as to serve the purpose of police and fire departments on ground floor, and the second floor was alloted to the several other city purposes. When the Fire Hall was built, the quarters in City Hall. vacated by that department, were at once taken over by other departments.

Auditorium.-The Auditorium, which also is the armory, is a .community building of distinct usefulness. It was erected in 1912, 524at a cost of $35,000. The main hall is 68×72 feet, and is provided with opera chairs for 780 persons. The stage is 50 feet wide. There are club rooms, shower baths, kitchen and dining room. The building is open at all times to the free use of all local associations that may have need of its hall for free gatherings. In the basement is a rifle range. The auditorium is in keeping with the community-hall spirit that was engendered by the leveling of class distinctions during the war, but it gives Eveleth this distinction-that it was projected before the time when the shock of war demonstrated that currency is but a symbol; that the world goes forward only by the good will, confidence and fellow-feeling of its peoples.

Recreation Building.-The Recreation Building is another indication of the community spirit that manifests itself in Eveleth. It was built in 1918, at a cost of $125,000. There are two main floors, the first being devoted to the winter sport of curling, and the second to indoor skating in the winter, and to various athletic games at other times. The institution is a municipal enterprise, and the membershp CITY HALL, EVELETH of the Eveleth Curling Club embraces all classes in the city. The city did its work thoroughly, engaging, as director, Robert Dunbar, curling champion of the Northwest.

Masonic Temple.-In October, 1920, the Eveleth Masonic bodies dedicated a new Masonic Temple, having elaborately remodeled a somewhat historic building for that purpose. The Masonic Temple, which stands at the north end of Adams Avenue, was until 1910 outside the city limits. The building was originally built by the township administration. W. T. Bray was the architect, and Harry Pearson, of Duluth, the contractor. Construction began on August 20, 1906, and the building was ready for occupancy on December 20th of that year. The cost was $10,000, and, until it came within the city limits, the building served as the Missabe Mountain Township Hall.

Other quarters were eventually found for the township administration, and the building passed to the local Masonic fraternity at a satisfactory price. The furnishing of the old township hall, as a Masonic Temple, has been thoroughly, but tastefully, carried out, the handsome furnishings and exquisite interior decorations giving Eveleth a Masonic Temple of very high grade. One of the most active and enthusiastic Masons responsible for the housing of the local body Vol. II-2 525of that order in this magnificent center, was J. C. Poole, chairman of the building committee. Others associated closely with him in that work were W. R. Van Slyke and A. E. Bawden.

Transportation.-The city is served by two steam railways, the Duluth and Iron Range, and the D. M. and N. In early days, the D. and I. R. station was “on top of the hill, about three-quarters of a mile from the village, the D. M. and N. station being nearer the village.” By the way, Mike Maxwell operated the first dray line in the village, and it was well patronized.

On January 4, 1910, the city passed an ordinance granting to W. H. and E. M. Prindle, “the right to maintain and operate motor railway lines … in and over streets and avenues of the City of Eveleth” for a period of twenty-five years. In due course thereafter, the street railway that connects Eveleth with Gilbert, on the east, and Hibbing, on the west, came into operation.

GRANT AVENUE, EVELETH. (BUSINESS LOTS ON THIS AVENUE WERE ORIGINALLY GIVEN AWAY, AS BONUSES, LATER TO BE WORTH FROM $12,000 TO $15,000 A LOT) Banking.-Eveleth has three banks, the First National, the Miners National, and the Peoples State. The combined deposits, more than two and a half millions, indicates the wealth of the city.

The First National Bank of Eveleth was organized in 1900, with the following named board of directors: D. H. Bacon, G. W. Wallace, W. J. Smith, W. E. Harwood, and G. A. Whitman. The original capital was $25,000, and the first officers were: George A. Whitman, president; and WValter J. Smith, cashier. In 1901, the private banking firm of O. D. Kinney and Company was absorbed, E. B. Hawkins joining the directorate of the First National. A cash dividend of 100 per cent was declared in 1910, and, by unanimous consent of the stockholders, was used to increase the capital to $50,000. In 1920, the bank had a surplus of $25,000, undivided profits of $15,000, and deposits of about $1,000,000. Present directors are: Geo. A. Whitman, R. J. Mitchell, Peter Peterson, Thomas H. Davey, R. N. Cornwall, W. P. Chinn, and Dr. C. W. More.

The Miners National Bank of Eveleth was incorporated in 1903.

Its original capital was $25,000, and the following-named people of Eveleth and vicinity were its principal organizers and first officers: W\alter J. Smith, president; Jas. A. Robb, vice-president; R. H.

Pearce, cashier; C. W. More, F. W. Bullen, N. B. Maxwell, R. R.

526Bailey, J. C. McGilvery; Jas. A. Robb, and W. J. Smith, directors.

Its capital is still $25,000, but its development is indicated by its surplus, which now is $36,000, there being also undivided profits amounting to $3,620.66. The present directors and executives are: Chas.

B. Hoel, president; Jas. A. Robb and J. C. McGilvery, vice-presidents; L. E. Johnson, cashier; J. C. Poole, Jas. A. Robb, J. C. McGilvery, Albert Roher, R. M. Heskett, L. E. Johnson, and C. B. Hoel, directors. The Miners National Bank of Eveleth stands in good place among national banks of Minnesota, and gets its due proportion of banking patronage in its sphere.

The Peoples State Bank of Eveleth was organized on July 2, 1918; with capital of $25,000. The first officers were: J. S. Saari, president; C. R. McCann, vice-president; Joseph A. Quinn. These three, with Sam Seigel, Peter Peterson, J. J. Brince, and E. M. Moline, RECREATION BUILDING, EVELETH. THE HOME OF CURLING AND INDOOR ICE SPORTS formed the original directorate. The only changes since 1918 are: H. J. Coleman, cashier, in place of J. A. Quinn, taking that gentleman’s place on the directorate also; and Edward Smith, director, in place of Peter Peterson. The capital is still the same, but there is now a surplus of $12,000. The directors of the Peoples State Bank of Eveleth have good reason to be pleased with the development of the bank during the few years it has been in existence.

Public Library.-The Eveleth Public Library, one of the city’s most elevating influences, is also one of the city’s most artistic buildings.

It was built in 1913-14, at a cost of $30,000, half of which amount was contributed by Andrew Carnegie, of worthy memory.

The library has already outgrown its quarters, and plans have been passed for its enlargement. The cost of maintenance in the first year was about $8,500, and its circulation of books was about 45,000.

When opened, on July 1, 1914, the library had 1,721 books, but in the first year of service was increased to 4,387 volumes, “acquired by 527purchase and gift,” and an inter-library loan gave Eveleth readers facility of collections from Duluth, Virginia, Hibbing, Chisholm and Two Harbors libraries. It was estimated that 43,872 people were “accommodated in the reading room of the library during the first 305 days of its operation,” and that 2,463 men had used the sm6king room. “The Sunday attendance has totaled about 6,784 readers,” stated the same review, adding that “The juvenile department has maintained a steady growth, the children having borrowed 26,405 volumes.” According to the “Sixth Annual Report, for the Year Ending June 30th, 1920,” the circulation has increased to 67,970 volumes, with corresponding increase in other phases of the work. The clubroom, for instance, was used for 226 meetings during the year. The juvenile department had grown so much that the number of juvenile books on the shelves in 1920 far exceeded the total number of books owned by the library when it first opened.

PUBLIC LIBRARY Credit for the gratifying growth of the library service has been earned by the library board, which has proved to be an active, alert and interested body, and by good direction of the library work by Miss Margaret Hickman, who has been librarian since the institution opened, in 1914. Mr. D. W. Freeman, who, until recently, was vicepresident, has also given much time to the affairs of the library. The present library board is as follows: Dr. C. W. More, chairman; Solomon Sax, George McCormick, Mrs. G. E. Peterson, Miss Hilma Berg, C. B. Hoel, H. J. Coleman, Peter Peterson, and V. H. Harvey.

Cost of maintenance is about $15,000 a year, the city appropriation for the year 1919-20 being $15,429.11. Books to the value of $1,792.18 were purchased in 1920.

Church History.-Eveleth Church history began with the efforts of local members of the Methodist Episcopal society, which was the first to erect a church building in the village. The establishing of that church in the “old town” has been referred to earlier in this chapter.

The Methodist Episcopal Church was the only one built in “the old town.” In about 1899, or 1900, a new church building was 528erected in the “new town,” Rev. R. J. Taylor in charge. The present Methodist Episcopal Church is at Adams Avenue and Monroe Street, Rev. I. J. Thorne, present pastor.

The Presbyterians early had a society in Eveleth. It is thought that the Rev. E. N. Raymond, who, for a few years, from 1893, was minister at the Virginia Church, held services in Eveleth, in 1895, or 1896, using the schoolhouse for that purpose. The First Presbyterian Church at Eveleth (the new town), was “moved over to Eveleth on logging sleighs, in 1899,” from the Auburn location, where it had been used as a schoolhouse. It “broke away coming down the hill, but nothing serious happened,” the early account further states: “It was used for two years at Fayal location, as a school, then moved to Eveleth for a church.” The Presbyterian Church “was organized November 21, 1900, by Rev. S. A. Jamieson.” The first elders were James May and John Urquhart. Early ministers were J. M. Todd and S. M. Marsh. Pioneer elders, George Turner and J. E. Rankin.

“The church building near Fayal School was dedicated November 2, 1902.” The present Presbyterian Church is situated on McKinley Avenue, near Monroe. Rev. Wm. Jobush, pastor.

The Catholic Church now has three church buildings in Eveleth: the Church of the Holy Family, corner Adams Avenue and Pierce street, Rev. Anton Leskovic; the Church of the Holy Conception, corner Jones street and Elba avenue, Reverend Elias, pastor; and St. Patrick’s, corner Jackson street and Roosevelt avenue, Rev. D. P.

Pratt, pastor. The Church of the Holy Family was built in 19Q0.

“It stood all alone at that time.” The Reverend Father Bilban “came from Virginia to minister,” and later became resident priest. Reverend Father Hogan succeeded him, in 1903. The St. Patrick’s Church was built in 1905, “for English-speaking Catholics.” Reverend Father Floyd was one of the first pastors.

The St. John’s Episcopal Church Society was “founded by Mrs.

Caroline Barrett, and a few others of Episcopalian faith.” The Rev.

W. E. Morgan, of Virginia, was “instrumental in raising funds for erection, in 1905, of the first building, corner of B avenue and Pierce street. The Rev. Albert Carswell was pastor, in 1906. The present church is on the corner of Pierce and McKinley streets. Rev.’ James Ward is pastor.

The Swedish Baptist society built a church in 1900, and in 1906 had a membership of thirty-five. Rev. L. E. Peterson was then pastor.

The present pastor is Victor E. Anderson, the church being on Adams avenue, between Hayes and Garfield streets.

Of the Lutheran churches (which now are the Finnish Lutheran, Adams avenue, near Monroe, Reverend Merijarki, pastor, and the Swedish Lutheran, corner Adams avenue and Pierce street, Rev. S. E.

Johnson, pastor), the Finnish Church was the first to be established.

That society “built on Grant avenue, near the M. E. Church, in 1900, soon after the town was removed up the hill.” There was a Swedish Mission in 1906, in charge of C. O. L. Peterson.

The residents of Hebraic faith congregate at the Agudath Achim, situated at the corner of Jackson street and Adams avenue. M.

Cohen is present Cantor.

Fraternal and Benevolent Societies.-There are many strong local organizations of fraternal orders, among them Masonic, Elks, Eagles, Moose, Odd-Fellows, Owls, Workmen, and Lady Maccabees; and many other benevolent societies of Swedish, Italian, Austrian, and 529Finnish character. Available space does not permit present compiler to even briefly review the histories of these societies.

Public Parks.-Eveleth has three public parks, and the people in general realize the value of them, and appreciate the facility. The Central Park has an area of 6 acres, North Side Park has 6.5 acres, and Lake Park consists of about 200 acres, at St. Mary’s and Ely lakes. Central Park is well fitted for such a use. It was purchased in 1912, and has been well improved under the direction of J. A.

Spurrier, park superintendent, who has made it “one of the finest” in this part of the state. North Side Park “was donated by the townsite owners, when Highland Addition was platted, in 1910.” This also is a very beautiful park, and greatly appreciated by the inhabitants.

Lake Park has been allowed to remain more in its wild CENTRAL PARK, EVELETH. (PUBLIC LIBRARY ON LEFT) state, with the virgin timber preserved, where possible. A zoo is maintained at Lake Park, and the “holding of band concerts in Central Park has been a feature for a number of years.” Lakes and Summer Resorts.-Within easy reach of Eveleth are several beautiful sheets of water. Elv Lake is within two miles of the city. Long Lake and Horseshoe Lake are about five miles distant, southward. Six miles south is Half Moon Lake. There is good bass fishing in these waters.

Real Estate.-Eveleth real estate has never “boomed,” but the city’s growth since removal from original townsite has been sturdy.

“Ground values on Grant Avenue, the main business street, range from $2,500 a lot to $5,000 for inside lots, and up to $10,000 for corner lots.” Residence lots range from $350 to $1,000.

Agriculture.-The development of outlying lands within the Eveleth sphere of trading is fostered by the city administration, and business organizations. “Much good land is available at from $15 to $25 an acre, according to location. Close-in wild land has been 530sold at $40 an acre.” The land pays well for development from its “cut-over” state. Potatoes are an excellent crop on new land, then a three-year rotation, oats or other grain, timothy or clover, and potatoes is recommended. Clover is practically a weed in St. Louis County, and in an average season it has been asserted that the yield is “in round figures $100 worth of forage from an acre.” Cleared and ploughed land in the vicinity of Eveleth “is worth not less than $100 an acre.” It is excellent sheep land, and the pioneer farmer, Wm. F. Haenke, has had surprisingly good results in sheep raising.

To Eveleth belongs the distinction of being the first city in the Range country to establish a Farmers’ Market, and “every year Eveleth holds a Farmers’ Day, at which the products of the surrounding farms are displayed and prizes awarded.” Much of the future prosperity of Eveleth lies in the proper development of surrounding agricultural land.

General City Improvements.-“More than 95 per cent of the streets of Eveleth are paved. Bitulithic pavement is the most common, with a few blocks of concreted block pavement. The total yardage completed with the six years to end of 1919 was 105,256, all of which is bitulithic on concrete base, excepting 14,241 yards of creosoted blocks on concrete base. The sewage-disposal system includes a septic tank, built in 1916, at a cost of $20,000: There are ten miles of sanitary sewers and five miles of storm sewers, and the streets are kept clean by modern motor-driven flushing equipment. There is a detention hospital, and several other public facilities that indicate that Eveleth is a good place in which to live. The system of playground activities directed at the public expense is thorough and effective.

The supervisor of playground activities, A. W. Lewis, is paid $2,280 a year.

Publicity.-The Eveleth Commercial Club leaves no stone unturned that might uncover benefit to Eveleth. George A. Perham, present secretary, is an enterprising, experienced, and alert public official, and the club embraces all phases of Eveleth activities and interests. The present directors are: C. B. Hoel, president; John E.

Manthey, V. E. Essling, vice-presidents; L. E. Johnson, treasurer; P. J. Boyle, J. C. Poole, E. J. Kane, J. S. Saari, J. G. Saam, and C. R.

McCann, directors.

The local newspaper, of course, is a direct and ever-present means of publicity. The Eveleth periodical goes by the name of the “Eveleth News,” and is a well-edited newspaper. Its history may be said to embrace all the newspaper history of Eveleth, for in it have been merged all the other papers ever published in Eveleth. The “Star” was the original Eveleth paper, and was published for many years by P. E Dowjing George A. Perham founded the “Mining News” in 1903. It later became the “News,” and was owned and edited by Mr. Perham from 1903 to 1909, when ownership and direction passed to David Yarin, of Mayville, N. D., who, one year later, sold to A. E. Pfremmer. In 1914 the ownership passed to T. H. Peterson and L. O. Magee, who conducted the consolidated papers, “Star” and “News,” under the name of the latter, until 1915, as a private partnership.

Since that year, the business has had corporate existence, the newspaper and printing business being incorporated under the trading name of the Eveleth Printing and Publishing Company.

Mr. Magee was a stockholder and an active associate in the editorial direction of the paper until 1918, when he entered the United States military forces. In due course he reached France, and met his death 531 F-4 rpr H p C-/C A0 ~Cf ,s cf) 0 b9 – P O cA WC/C e4 C/) 00 CfI Io0r a- 00 Cf) 4-^ – o Q rs 0 C 0 Cf -C) E-4 t– ©J 0D 00 At < 10 f3 <F C., C) 9 F-4 c)~ “~” P-4 >-4 PH’ E-1 ,H §-5 U ^ 0 A F-r 0 13 PA uCt -AAr CU 0 0 a a © HCf t3H V)2 A A P4 0 4.

4 x wr Q-I 111 (f w < L~ U) 0 4 W.

U K:on the battlefield, at Argonne Forest, on October 1, 1918. (Further reference to his national service will be found in the World War chapter of this work.) Since the departure of Mr. Magee from Eveleth in 1918, Mr. Peterson has been in full charge of the paper, as manager and supervising editor. The “News” is a seven-column weekly, all “home print,” 8 to 16 pages; its circulation is about 1,350 copies weekly, and its advertising patronage is good. The company owns a good printing plant, having the latest typesetting machinery.

Cemetery.-The’ Eveleth Cemetery was established in 1910-12, J. H. Hearding and George H. Perham being those chiefly instrumental is securing the necessary land for that sacred purpose. In an ordinary community, such would not be a very difficult matter to negotiate, but in a mining community where all unexplored land is potentially valuable in mineral deposits, negotiations are more difficult to carry through.

Taxation.-To indicate the development of Eveleth, the following comparison is given. The taxable property, real and personal, within the village of Eveleth in 1895 was assessed at $28,571. In 1919 it was $17,303,737.

Population.-Another comparison, but not so striking, is in the census statistics. According to the original petition for incorporation 200 persons resided in Eveleth in June, 1893. In 1900, the population was 2,752; in 1910 it was 7,036; and in 1920 residents cognizant with the growth of the city in most of its phases in the preceding decade, were somewhat surprised to learn the federal census-taking only recorded 7,205 persons as then having residence in Eveleth. A recanvassing was suggested, but apparently was not made. However, with that population, Eveleth takes fifth place among the incorporated places of St. Louis County.

Old Settlers Association.-Reference to the society which, above all others, is pledged to devote itself mainly to the preservation of Mesabi range history, must not be forgotten. The Mesabi Range Old Settlers Association had its inception at Eveleth in 1919, Charles Jesmore being the most active promoter. An organization was affected at the county fair held at Hibbing in that year. First officers were: Chas. Jesmore, president; W. E. Hannaford, secretary; Frank Ansley, treasurer. There were several vice presidents, the endeavor being to elect one pioneer of each town to that office. Those elected included: Dudley W. Freeman, Eveleth; W. J. Eaton, Virginia; Joseph Haley, Hibbing; Fred Talboys, Aurora; George Smith, Mountain Iron; Frank Caldwell, Biwabik. The first annual meeting was held at Biwabik in August, 1919. Nearly 600 pioneers of the Mesabi range have now joined the society.

School History.-Last, but certainly not least in importance, comes a review of the history of Eveleth schools. Indeed, when a stranger first enters one of the cities of the Mesabi range, and views the magnificent school buildings, which are generally the outstanding landmarks of the place, he is forced to the conclusion that those responsible for the public weal in the Mesabi range have a proper appreciation to the importance of the community of an adequate system of education. Certainly, the future prosperity of the city depends in great. measure upon the excellence, or otherwise, of its public schools of the present. Eveleth recognizes that; and so apparently do the directors of the principal mining companies. They have resisted increase in municipal taxation on many occasions, but have never seemed to adopt a niggardly attitude toward a levy for school pur- 533, E-a 0 0 fr Q cn Coposes. The school levy for Independent School District No. 39 (Eveleth) in 1919 was $444,981.57, and some school districts have an even higher levy, the bulk of which is payable by the mining companies; yet it seems that the latter have always been ready to co-operate in the establishment of an even better educational system than can be found in other communities of even higher social status. To the public schools of the range go children of very many nationalities (thirtynine being represented in the enrollment of one school district), yet they are afforded as fine schools as can be found almost anywhere in America. And the standard of education is equally high, the school districts having the financial means wherewith to attract into service the best public school educators of the country. Consequently, the children of the range communities, mostly children of hardworking, honest, but in many cases illiterate, parents, will be able eventually to pass out into the world, or into higher schools, well-grounded in academics, and possibly in vocational knowledge.

The first school established in Eveleth has been referred to earlier in this chapter. The little school erected in 1895 was evidently only for the smaller children. Those of higher grade used to go over to Virginia to school. And the Eveleth schools up to the year 1903 were under the direction of the Virginia District (No. 22 School District), Mr. John H. Hearding, of Eveleth, however, being one of the principal members of that school board. From 1903, Eveleth has been the administrative center of Independent School District No. 39, and, fortunately, the school history from that time to 1915 was compiled for, and published in, the Eveleth High School Annual for 1915. That review is the basis for the following.

It appears that in 1903, “Virginia had the greater part of population, but the southern end of the district (Eveleth) objected to have part in paying for the new building in Virginia.” There was “some excitement,” but eventually Eveleth separated, assuming $13,500 of current debt, and 69 per cent of bonded debt. Independent School District No. 39 was then organized, having responsibility for public education in the whole of Fayal Township and in six sections of Missabe Mountain Township, a resolution passed March 22, 1903, by the county commissioners describing the new district as “all of township 57 n. of range 17 w., and sections 28, 29, 30, 31, 32 and 33, of township 58 n. of range 17 w.” “The first election brought into office J. H. Hearding, director, G. H. Dormer, treasurer, and W. J. Smith, clerk. They found themselves to be in debt, to the extent of $35,000 to old district,” and in possession of what is now known as the Spruce School, the “first real school building erected in Eveleth.” It has been added to and repaired, and is still giving good service. They also had at the outset one other school building, the Fayal, a frame building, “built by Mr. D. T. Denton in a picturesque country clubhouse style.” The new board found a deplorably overcrowded condition existent in the two schools, and immediately applied themselves to the task of remedying that condition. Martin Finucan was given contract to erect two small school houses. These became known as the Adams and Fayal kindergartens, and were erected at a cost of nearly $4.000.

They were only intended to serve a temporary need, but have been in almost constant use ever since, the enrollment increasing more rapidly than the school accommodation.

The first brick school house built became known as the high school. Construction began in the fall of 1904, and in the spring 535work was resumed. It cost about $48,000, and served as the high school until June, 1908, when it was gutted by fire. The present Junior High School now stands upon its site. The burning of the Fayal school house, on April 25, 1911, placed the. district again in a very much overcrowded state, notwithstanding that the Adams school house, now called the Lincoln Annex, was built in 1908, and a new high school had been built. The Adams School was begun in October, 1907, when J. A. Roberts, of Duluth, secured the general contract.

The building is of red brick, and of eight-room capacity. It cost about $33,000. Bids for the building of the high school, to place re- that burned in June, 1908, were opened at the October, 1908, meeting of the school board. Henry Henricksen secured the general contract, the total cost being about $73,000, and for many years it was considered “one of the finest school buildings on the range.” WV. T. Bray was the architect.

In June, 1910, the form of organization changed. Mr. Hearding, who had fathered the school district and had given very much of his time to school matters since he first settled in Eveleth, removed to Duluth, and could no longer take part in local school administration.

He was succeeded by T. H. Davey. Members of the new board of education were Dr. C. W. More, G. H. Dormer, J. J. Murnik, Albert Rohrer and H. S. Sherman.

A new school was built at Fayal in 1912, to take the place of that destroyed by fire in 1911, and it was thought that adequate provision for growth had been provided by making the capacity of the new school ten rooms, for 420 children. The old school building could only accommodate 200 children. The contractor was J. Donlin, and the total cost $60,000.

The Lincoln school building was erected in 1912, bids for its construction being opened on April 1st of that year. It cost about $75,000.

Educationally, Eveleth attained an unique distinction in 1914, when it opened its Manual Training School, “the first school building in Minnesota devoted entirely to boys’ industrial subjects.” It cost about $60,000, and has drafting room, printery, mill shop, elementary wood-working, and many other industrial departments. The building is of Menominee pressed brick, and is supposed to be fireproof.

In 1918 another school building was added to the impressive group on Jones Street. The Senior High School is the third of the group, beyond the Junior High (wherein are the administrative offices), and the Manual Training schools. And soon will be added “another modern building, for use as a Grade and Girls’ Vocational School, on a site to the north of the Senior High School.” “An open-air school has been maintained at Ely Lake during the last two summers. This school is composed of one school building and two sleeping cottages,” and is intended for sickly children. There is a rural school in section 36 of Fayal Township, a rapidly-growing agricultural center.

Independent School District No. 39 now has eight large school houses and several smaller. The enrollment for the school-year 1919- 20 was 2,992. Forty-one male and 101 female teachers were employed in that school-year, the average monthly salary of the former being $180, and of the women teachers, $146. School property was estimated to be worth one million dollars ini that year. The present Board of Education is: J. M. Stearns, clerk; T. H. Davey, treasurer; Dr. C. H.

More, chairman; James A. Robb, W. R. Van Slyke and C. B. Hoel, 536directors. J. V. Voorhees, district superintendent of schools, assumed supervision of Eveleth schools on July 15, 1920. He came from Winona, Minn., with a good record as an educator, and executive, and he is maintaining, perhaps advancing, the standard of thoroughness demanded from principals and teachers of Independent School District No. 39. Thus will Eveleth schools maintain their good repute among range schools, which are equal to the best of their kind in the northwest, perhaps in the whole country.

A review of Eveleth school history would be incomplete and an injustice would be done, unless it included reference to the excellent work of Mr. B. O. Greening as school superintendent for more than a decade. He was appointed superintendent of Eveleth school district in 1904, and continued in that capacity until 1917, when he entered upon military service, being one of the first to leave Eveleth after war was declared. As to his work as superintendent, the following opinion is given by one who well knew the results obtained: “Mr. Greening came here in 1904, as school superintendent, and continued in that capacity until 1917. … During the period in which he was in charge of the schools most of the buildings were constructed, and he organized, or laid the foundation for the junior college course we now have in connection with the school system of Eveleth. As an educator, Mr. Greening stood high among school men of the state, and much of the credit for the high standing now attained in our schools is due him; as an executive Mr. Greening was progressive and thorough, a good citizen always promoting things worthwhile.” 5


  • Van Brunt, Walter, ed. Duluth and St. Louis County, Minnesota Vols. 1 – 3. The American Historical Society. Chicago: 1922.
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